The Growth Machine Comes to New Orleans

  • William R. Freudenburg
  • Robert Gramling
  • Shirley Laska
  • Kai T. Erikson


One of the names that will be familiar to anyone who has spent time in New Orleans belongs to a hero of the War of 1812 who was also one of the city’s most famous celebrities during its early years—Jean Lafitte. Lafitte, an early entrepreneur, was a pirate—or as he preferred it, a “privateer.” As such, his career involved an ambiguous relationship between virtue and villainy—and an equally ambiguous relationship with economic development.


Local Leader Environmental Harm Water Connection Crescent City Ambiguous Relationship 
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Copyright information

© William R. Freudenburg, Robert B. Gramling, Shirley B. Laska and Kai T. Erikson 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • William R. Freudenburg
    • 1
  • Robert Gramling
    • 2
  • Shirley Laska
    • 3
  • Kai T. Erikson
    • 4
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.University of Southwestern LouisianaLafayetteUSA
  3. 3.University of New OrleansNew OrleansUSA
  4. 4.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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