Four Wicked Cases

  • Peter J. BalintEmail author
  • Ronald E. Stewart
  • Anand Desai
  • Lawrence C. Walters


In this chapter, we discuss in more detail the four major environmental controversies introduced in  Chapter 1. These four examples—restoration of the Everglades, management of Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Tanzania, carbon trading in the European Union, and management of the Sierra Nevada national forests—illustrate the breadth of environmental challenges that fall into the category of wicked problems. The cases involve a range of socioeconomic contexts in both developed and developing countries and center on a variety of natural resources. Forest planning in the Sierra Nevada will be our primary case study throughout the book, but we will draw on the other three cases frequently to illustrate our points.


National Park Wicked Problem Emission Trading System Everglades Agricultural Area Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan 
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Copyright information

© Island Press 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Balint
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ronald E. Stewart
    • 2
  • Anand Desai
    • 3
  • Lawrence C. Walters
    • 4
  1. 1.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  2. 2.Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  3. 3.Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Brigham Young UniversityProvoUSA

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