Renewing Pastureland Functions Using Tree Belts

Chapter

Abstract

In this scenario we describe the procedures and principles that restoration practitioners (RPs) can put into practice to improve a number of functions and values (e.g., retaining water and improving biodiversity) on farms where woodlands have been cleared for use as pasturelands. To create pastures and grow crops in many regions around the world, woodlands have been extensively cleared. This clearing of woodland trees alters the way landscapes function. (See Ludwig and Tongway 2000, 2002.) Tree clearing can cause runoff and loss of soil even in relatively gently sloping landscapes (figure 10.1). Attempts to avoid such problems by growing pastures for livestock, rather than farming crops, have often failed because closely grazed pastures provide very little resistance to overland flows, especially when rainfall events are intense. Even moderate rainstorm events can wash soil sediments, animal dung, and plant litter from hillslopes into riparian zones and can create further difficulties, such as the clogging of natural drainages.

References

  1. Ellis, T. W., S. Leguédois, P. B. Hairsine, and D. J. Tongway. 2006. Capture of overland flow by a tree belt on a pastured hillslope in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research44:117–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Leguédois, S., T. W. Ellis, P. B. Hairsine, and D. J. Tongway. 2008. Sediment trapping by a tree belt: Processes and consequences for sediment delivery. Hydrological Processes22:2523-34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ludwig, J. A., and D. J. Tongway. 2000. Viewing rangelands as landscape systems. In Rangeland Desertification, ed. O. Arnalds and S. Archer, 39–52. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ludwig, J. A., and D. J. Tongway. 2002. Clearing savannas for use as rangelands in Queensland: Altered landscapes and water-erosion processes. Rangeland Journal24:83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Munro, N. T., D. B. Lindenmayer, and J. Fischer. 2007. Faunal response to revegetation in agricultural areas of Australia: A review. Ecological Management and Restoration8:199–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ryan, J. G., C. A. McAlpine, and J. A. Ludwig. 2010. Integrated vegetation designs for enhancing water retention and recycling in agroecosystems. Landscape Ecology.Published online: DOI 10.1007/s10980-010-9509-7.Google Scholar
  7. Tongway, D. J., and J. A. Ludwig. 2005. Heterogeneity in arid and semiarid lands. In Ecosystem function in heterogeneous landscapes, ed. G. M. Lovett, C. G. Jones, M. G. Turner, and K. C. Weathers, 189–205. New York: Springer Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Whisenant, S. G. 1990. Repairing damaged wildlands: A process-orientated, landscape-scale approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© David J. Tongway and John A. Ludwig 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIRO’s Gungahlin LaboratoryAustralia
  2. 2.CSIRO’s Laboratory AthertonAustralia

Personalised recommendations