Advertisement

Introduction

  • H. Volden
  • A. H. Gustafsson
Part of the EAAP – European Federation of Animal Science book series (EAAP, volume 30)

Abstract

Feed is one of the major expenses in modern cattle production. In addition to feed prices, its overall costs are affected by the efficiency of feed utilization and the output of animal products to be marketed. Hence, there is a clear need to evaluate feed quality in order to maximise profitability. This requires information on both animal requirements and nutrient supply, since formulation of an appropriate ration involves balancing available feeds in proportions that match the amounts of nutrients supplied to the animals’ nutrient requirements as closely as possible. There are two principal methods used to describe animal nutrition: those based on mechanistic approaches, which describe responses to nutrients from chemical and physiological processes in the gastrointestinal tract and intermediary, and empirical approaches describing simple relationships between nutrient intakes and production responses. The challenge in the development of new feed evaluation systems is to accurately predict responses to nutrients so that any difference in product income and feed costs can be maximized, while improving overall feed efficiency. Feed efficiency is also of great importance due to its impact on enteric methane emission to the atmosphere and nitrogen and phosphorus passing into the environment.

Keywords

Feed Efficiency Production Response Feed Utilization Feed Cost Protein Evaluation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. AFRC (Agricultural and Food Research Council), 1992. Nutritive requirements of ruminant animals: protein. AFRC Technical Committee on Response to Nutrients. Report No. 9. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews: Series B 62: 787–835.Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin, R.L., 1995. Modelling Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism. Chapman and Hall, London, UK. 592 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Danfær, A., P. Huhtanen, P. Udén, J. Sveinbjörnsson and H. Volden, 2006. The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline - Description. In: Kebreab, E., J. Dikstra, A. Bannink, J. Gerrits and J. France (eds.). Nutrient Digestion and Utilisation in Farm Animals: Modelling Approaches. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 383–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fox, D.G., C.J. Sniffen, J.D. O’Connor, J.B. Russell and P.J. Van Soest, 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. III. Cattle requirements and diet adequacy. Journal of Animal Science 70: 3578–3596.Google Scholar
  5. Hansson, N., 1913. En ny metod för beräkning av fodermedlens produktionsvärde vid utfodring af mjölkkor. Meddelande Nr. 85 från centralanstalten för försöksväsendet på jordbruksområdet. Ivar Hæggströms Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, Stockholm, Sweden. (In Swedish).Google Scholar
  6. Henneberg, W. and F. Stohmann, 1864. Begründung einer rationellen fütterung der wiederkauer. Schwetske and Söhne, Braunschweig, Germany. (In German).Google Scholar
  7. Kellner, O., 1912. Die Ernährung der Landwirtschaftlichen nutztiere. Raul Parey, Berlin, Germany. (In German).Google Scholar
  8. Madsen, J., 1985. The basis for the proposed Nordic protein evaluation system for ruminants. The AAT-PBV system. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Supplement 25: 9–20.Google Scholar
  9. Møllgaard, H., 1929. Fütterungslehre des milchviehs. Verlag von M. and H. Schalper, Hannover, Germany. (In German).Google Scholar
  10. NRC (National Research Council), 1985. Ruminal nitrogen usage. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. 138 pp.Google Scholar
  11. NRC, 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. Seventh revised edition, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. 408 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Russell, J.B., J.D. O’Connor, D.G. Fox, P.J. Van Soest and C.J. Sniffen, 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. I. Ruminal fermentation. Journal of Animal Science 70: 3551–3561.Google Scholar
  13. Sniffen, C.J., J.D. O’Connor, P.J. Van Soest, D.G. Fox and J.B. Russell, 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science 70: 3562–3577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Tamminga, S., W.M. Van Straalen, A.P.J. Subnel, R.G.M. Meijer, A. Steg, C.J.G. Wever and M.C. Block, 1994. The Dutch protein evaluation system: the DVE/OEB-system. Livestock Production Science 40: 139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Van der Honing, Y. and G. Alderman, 1988. Feed evaluation and nutritional requirements. III. Ruminants. Livestock Production Science 19: 217–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Vérité, R., P. Chapoutot, B. Michalet-Doreau, J.L. Peyraud and C. Poncet, 1987. Révision du système des protéines digestibles dans l’intestin (PDI). Bulletin Technique C.R.Z.V. Thei1, INRA 70: 19–34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Wageningen Academic Publishers 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Volden
    • 1
  • A. H. Gustafsson
    • 1
  1. 1.TINE and the Norwegian University of Life SciencesAkershusNorway

Personalised recommendations