Biomechanical Analysis of Slip, Trip, and Fall Accidents

  • Scott D. Batterman
  • Steven C. Batterman
Part of the Forensic Science and Medicine book series (FSM)


Traumatic injuries and deaths resulting from slip, trip, and fall accidents are a significant public health problem in the United States. The economic loss due to lost employment time is an important factor in many industrial settings and the likelihood of injuries resulting from slip, trip, and fall accidents is an increasing concern in general, particularly as the population ages. It is reported that in the year 2000, there were approx 8.1 million visits to emergency rooms as a result of accidental falls, which constitutes approx 20% of the total number of reported emergency room visits in that year (1). Amongst the elderly living in the general population, it is reported that approx 30% of those over the age of 65 fall each year, and for those over 80 yr old, the rate is approx 40% (2). Others estimate that on average more than 16,000 people die each year as a result of fall related injuries (3). Injuries resulting from slip, trip, and fall accidents are not limited to a single region of the body and include injuries to the foot, ankle, knee, hip, and head. As a result of this epidemic in slip, trip, and fall-related injuries, numerous measures have been undertaken in an attempt to reduce the number of slip-and-fall accidents including, but not limited to, the use of slip-resistant materials on walkway surfaces and prescribed shoe outsole materials and patterns.


Friction Force Stride Length Biomechanical Analysis Heel Strike Fall Related Injury 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott D. Batterman
    • 1
  • Steven C. Batterman
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Batterman Engineering, LLCCherry Hill
  2. 2.Professor Emeritus of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied SciencePhiladelphia
  3. 3.Professor Emeritus of Bioengineering in Orthopaedic Surgery, School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia

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