Advertisement

Renal Artery Embolism and Renal Vein Thrombosis

  • Edward J. Yun
  • Christopher J. Kane
Part of the Current Clinical Urology book series (CCU)

Abstract

In this chapter, we explore two categories of emergencies involving the major renal vasculature: renal infarction and renal vein thrombosis (RVT). Although both conditions ultimately cause renal ischemia, the etiologies, presentation, treatment strategies, and ultimate prognoses of occlusion of the renal artery and vein are quite different. We review the current literature with an emphasis on the optimal evaluation and treatment of patients with renal artery infarction and RVT.

Keywords

Renal Artery Nephrotic Syndrome Renal Vein Thrombosis Renal Infarction Membranous Glomerulonephritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Von Recklinghausen F. Haemorrhagische niereninfarktr. Virchos Arch Pathol Anat Physiol 1861; 20: 205–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rohl L. Vascular surgery in urology. Proc R Soc Med 1971; 64: 589 594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Domanovits H, Paulis M, Nikfardtam M, et al. Acute renal infarction. Medicine 1999; 78: 386–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ivanovic V, McKusick MA, Johnson CM 3rd, et al. Renal artery stent placement: complications at a single tertiary care center. J Vase Interv Radiol 2003; 14(2): 217–225.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hoxie H, Coggin C. Renal infarction. Arch Intern Med 1940; 65: 587–594.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ouriel K, Andnis CH, Ricotta JJ, DeWeese JA, Green RM. Acute renal artery occlusion: when is revascularization justified? J Vase Surg 1987; 5: 348–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sclafani S, Goldstein A, Panetta T, et al. CT diagnosis of renal pedicle injury. Urol Radiol 1985; 7: 63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pilmore HL, Walker RJ, Solomon C, Packer S, Wood D. Acute bilateral renal artery occlusion: successful revascularization with streptokinase. Am J Nephrol 1995; 15: 90–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takeda M, Katayama Y, Takahashi H, el al. Transarterial fibrinolysis using tissue plasminogen activator in a patient with acute renal failure due to acute thrombosis of bilateral renal arteries. Nephron 1994; 66: 240–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Spirnak JP, Resnick MI. Revascularization of traumatic thrombosis of the renal artery. Gynecol Obstet 1987; 164: 22–26.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lacombe M. Acute non-traumatic obstructions of the renal artery. J Cardiovasc Surg 1992; 33: 163–168.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lohse JR, Botham RJ, Waters RF. Traumatic bilateral renal artery thrombosis: case report and review of the literature. J Urol 1982; 127: 522–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leary FJ, Utz DC, Wakim KG. Effects of continuous and intermittent renal ischemia on renal function. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1963; 116: 311–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pontremoli R, Rampoldi V, Morbidelli A, Fiorini F, Ranise A, Garibotto G. Acute renal failure due to acute bilateral renal artery thrombosis: successful surgical revascularization after prolonged anuria. Nephron 1990; 56: 322–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wagner HJ, Meuller-Hulsbeck S, Pitton MB, Weiss W, Wess M. Rapid thrombectomy with a hydrodynamiccatheter: results from a prospective, multicenter trial. Radiology 1997; 205: 675–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sternbergh WC, Ramee SR, De Vun DA, Money SR. Endovascular treatment of multiple visceral artery paradoxical emboli with mechanical and pharmacological thrombolysis. J Endovasc Ther 2000; 7: 155–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carroll PR, McAninch JW. Renovascular trauma: risk assessment, surgical management, and outcome. J Trauma 1990; 30: 547–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McAninch JW, Carroll PR. Renal trauma: kidney preservation through improved vascular con trol — a refined approach. J Trauma 1982; 22: 285–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Haas CA, Spirnak JP. Traumatic renal artery occlusion: a review of the literature. Tech Urol 1998; 4(1): 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Osman Y, Shokeir A, Ali-el-Dein B, et al. Vascular complications after live donor renal transplantation: study of risk factors and effects on graft and patient survival. J Urol 2003; 169: 859–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rerolle JP, Antoine C, Raynaud A, et al. Successful endoluminal thrombo-aspiration of renal graft venous thrombosis. Transpl Int 2000; 13: 82–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Takahashi M, Humke U, Girnat M, Kramann B, Uder M. Early posttransplantation renal allograft perfusion failure due to dissection: diagnosis and interventional treatment. Am J Roentgenol 2003; 180: 759–763.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rayer P. Traite des maladies des reins et des alterations de la secretion urinaire. JB Baillere 1840; 2: 590–599.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jackson CA, Greaves M, Patterson AD, Brown CB, Preston FE. Relationship between platelet aggregation, thromboxane synthesis and albumin concentration in the nephrotic syndrome. Br J Haematol 1982; 52: 69–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Laville M, Aguilera P, Maillet PJ, Labeeuw M, Madonna O, Zech P. The prognosis of renal vein thrombosis: a re-evaluation of 27 cases. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1988; 3: 247–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McCarthy LJ, Titus JL, Daugherty GW. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis and the nephrotic syndrome in adults. Ann Intern Med 1963; 58: 837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Llach F, Papper S, Massry SG. The clinical spectrum of renal vein thrombosis: acute and chronic. Am J Med 1980; 69: 819–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Llach F, Nikakhtar B. Renal thromboembolism, a the roembolism, and renal vein thrombosis. In: Diseases of the Kidney, 6th ed. (Schrier RW, Gottschalk CW, eds.). Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, MA, 1997, Vol. 2, pp. 1893–1918.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yang SH, Lee CH, Ko SF, Chen JB, Chung FR, HSU KT. The successful treatment of renal-vein thrombosis by low-molecular-weight heparin in a steroid-sensitive nephrotic patient. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002; 17: 2017–2019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jaar BG, Kim HS, Samaniego MD, Lund GB, Atta MG. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy: a new approach in the treatment of acute renal vein thrombosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002; 17: 1122–1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zigman A, Yazbeck S, Emil S, Nguyen L. Renal vein thrombosis: a 10-year review. J Pediatr Surg 2000; 35: 1540–1542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hibbert J, Howlett DC, Greenwood KL, MacDonald LM, Saunders AJ. The ultrasound appearance of neonatal renal vein thrombosis. Br J Radiol 1997; 70: 1191–1194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chalmers EA, Gibson BES. Thrombolytic therapy in the management of pediatric thromboembolic disease. Br J Haematol 1999; 104: 14–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Weinschenk N, Pelidis M, Fiascone J. Combination thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy for bilateral renal vein thrombosis in a premature infant. Am J Perinatol 2001; 18: 293–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward J. Yun
    • 1
  • Christopher J. Kane
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan Francisco, San Francisco

Personalised recommendations