Craniofacial Repair

  • Bruce A. Doll
  • Charles Sfeir
  • Kodi Azari
  • Sarah Holland
  • Jeffrey O. Hollinger


Annually, skeletal injury and specifically craniofacial injury total approx 12.2 million people in the United States (1). Advances in craniofacial therapy, founded on developing knowledge of the molecular signals and intercellular communication, has greatly improved the restoration of form and function. Fracture healing is a complex physiological process. Cellular and biochemical processes that occur during fracture healing parallel those that take place in the growth plate during development, except in fracture healing these processes occur on a temporal scale (2, 3, 4). Similarities in the processes occurring at the growth plate and at the fracture site permit some knowledge from growthplate analysis to comprehend events in fracture healing. Fracture healing involves a series of distinct cellular responses. Specific paracrine and autocrine intercellular signaling pathways control cellular and osseous tissue mineralization (Fig. 1). However, extrapolation of knowledge of growth-plate molecular dynamics is insufficient to achieve consistently optimal bone regeneration during primary and secondary fracture healing.


Bone Graft Bone Morphogenetic Protein Fracture Healing Bone Regeneration Maxillary Sinus 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce A. Doll
    • 1
  • Charles Sfeir
    • 2
  • Kodi Azari
    • 3
  • Sarah Holland
    • 3
  • Jeffrey O. Hollinger
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PeriodonticsUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Dental MedicinePittsburgh
  2. 2.University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine, and Bone Tissue Engineering CenterCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburgh
  3. 3.University of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburgh
  4. 4.Bone Tissue Engineering Center, Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Biological SciencesCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburgh

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