Recarbonation and Softening

  • Lawrence K. Wang
  • Jy S. Wu
  • Nazih K. Shammas
  • David A. Vaccari
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 3)


According to Wang (1), recarbonation is defined as “(a) the process of introducing carbon dioxide, CO2, as a final stage in the lime-soda ash softening process in order to convert carbonates to bicarbonates and thereby stabilize the solution against precipitation of carbonates, (b) the diffusion of carbon dioxide gas through liquid to replace the carbon dioxide gas removed by the addition of lime, or (c) the diffusion of carbon dioxide through a liquid to render the liquid stable with respect to precipitation or dissolution of alkaline constituents.” The process is accomplished by bubbling gases containing carbon dioxide (CO2) through water. This chapter introduces the recarbonation process, its closely related lime/soda-ash softening process, and various applications of recarbonation.


Calcium Carbonate Total Dissolve Solid Head Loss Softening Process Influent Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence K. Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jy S. Wu
    • 4
  • Nazih K. Shammas
    • 5
  • David A. Vaccari
    • 6
  1. 1.Zorex CorporationNewtonville
  2. 2.Lenox Institute of Water TechnologyLenox
  3. 3.Krofta Engineering CorporationLenox
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotte
  5. 5.Graduate Environmental Engineering ProgramLenox Institute of Water TechnologyLenox
  6. 6.Department of Civil, Environmental and Ocean EngineeringStevens Institute of TechnologyHoboken

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