Techniques and Protocols for Acquisition and Display of Contrast-Enhanced CT Angiography

  • Christoph R. Becker
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) studies of the coronary arteries were performed first to visualize the vessel lumen and to achieve an angiographic-like presentation of the coronary arteries in combination with 3D postprocessing methods (1). Because short exposure times are essential for coronary CT angiography (CTA), investigations initially were performed with electron beam CT (EBCT) scanners. These dedicated cardiac CT scanners were originally designed to measure myocardial perfusion (2). For morphological assessment of cardiac structures, a restrictive scan protocol with EBCT allows for 100-ms exposure time, 3-mm slice thickness, and 130-kVp, 630-mA electron-gun power. The acquisition of every single slice is triggered prospectively by the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal at the end systolic phase of the cardiac cycle.


Leave Anterior Descend Maximum Intensity Projection Valsalva Maneuver Tube Current Modulation Axial Compute Tomography Image 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Moshage WE, Achenbach S, Seese B, Bachmann K, Kirchgeorg M. Coronary artery stenoses: three-dimensional imaging with electrocardiographically triggered, contrast agent-enhanced, electron-beam CT. Radiology 1995;196(3): 707–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boyd D. Computerized transmission tomography of the heart using scanning electron beams. In: Higgins C (ed), CT of the Heart and the Great Vessels: Experimental Evaluation and Clinical Application. Futura, Mount Kisco, New York: 1983.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jakobs TF, Becker CR, Ohnesorge B, et al. Multislice helical CT of the heart with retrospective ECG gating: reduction of radiation exposure by ECG-controlled tube current modulation. Eur Radiol 2002;12(5): 1081–1086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hong C, Becker CR, Huber A, et al. ECG-gated reconstructed multi-detector row CT coronary angiography: effect of varying trigger delay on image quality. Radiology 2001;220(3):712–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ryan T, Anderson J, Antman E, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction). J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28: 1328–1428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mao SS, Oudiz RJ, Bakhsheshi H, Wang SJ, Brundage BH. Variation of heart rate and electrocardiograph trigger interval during ultrafast computed tomography. Am J Card Imaging 1996;10:239–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vogl TJ, Abolmaali ND, Diebold T, et al. Techniques for the detection of coronary atherosclerosis: multi-detector row CT coronary angiography. Radiology 2002;223(1):212–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johnson M. Principles and practice of coronary angiography. In: Skorton D, Schelbert H, Wolf G, Brundage B (eds), Marcus Cardiac Imaging: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease. 2nd ed. WB Sanders Company, Philadelphia: 1996;220–250.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Austen WG, Edwards JE, Frye RL, et al. A reporting system on patients evaluated for coronary artery disease. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee for Grading of Coronary Artery Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery, American Heart Association. Circulation 1975;51(4 Suppl):5–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paul JF, Dambrin G, Caussin C, Lancelin B, Angel C. Sixteen-slice computed tomography after acute myocardial infarction: from perfusion defect to the culprit lesion. Circulation 2003;108(3):373–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Masuda Y, Yoshida H, Morooka N, Watanabe S, Inagaki Y. The usefulness of x-ray computed tomography for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Circulation 1984;70:217–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huber D, Lapray J, Hessel S. In vivo evaluation of experimental myocardial infarcts by ungated computed tomography. AJR 1981; 136:469–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Horton KM, Post WS, Blumenthal RS, Fishman EK. Prevalence of significant noncardiac findings on electron-beam computed tomography coronary artery calcium screening examinations. Circulation 2002;106(5):532–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph R. Becker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinica RadiologyUniversity of MunichMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations