Coronary Calcium Scanning
It is increasingly recognized that only by preventing ischemic heart disease can morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases be substantially reduced. There are two main preventive strategies: one that focuses on community-wide measures (“population approach”) and one that focuses on high-risk individuals (“high-risk approach”) (1). Certainly, both approaches have strengths and limitations, and should work best if applied in a complementary fashion. Although clear goals can be set for community-wide measures (such as promoting healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and marginalizing smoking), strategies for successful implementation depend on political, cultural, and economic surroundings. Trials in Central and Western Europe have failed to fulfil the expectations (2,3). By contrast, the high-risk approach has been demonstrated to be effective regarding both lifestyle and pharmacological interventions (1). The problem with this approach is the need to reliably identify high-risk subjects.
KeywordsCholesterol Europe Radionuclide Cardiol Choles
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.World Health Organization European Collaborative Group. European Collaborative Trial of Multifactorial Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease. Final report on the 6-year results. Lancet 1986;1:869–872.Google Scholar
- 14.Schmermund A, Denktas AE, Rumberger JA, et al. Independent and incremental value of coronary artery calcium for predicting the extent of angiographic coronary artery disease: comparison with cardiac risk factors and radionuclide perfusion imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34:777–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report. Circulation 2002; 106:3143–3421.Google Scholar
- 28.De Backer G, Ambrosioni E, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. Executive Summary. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Third Joint Task Force of European and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Eur Heart J 2003;24:1601–1610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Vliegenthart R, Oei HH, Breteler MM, et al. Coronary calcification is a strong predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly. Circulation 2002;106(Suppl):II–743.Google Scholar
- 30.Vliegenthart R. Coronary calcification and the risk of cardiovascular disease. An epidemiologic study. PhD Thesis. Thoraxcentre Rotterdam, Netherlands, March 19, 2003.Google Scholar
- 31.Arad Y, Roth M, Newstein D, Guerci A. Coronary calcification, coronary disease risk factors, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events: the St. Francis Heart Study. Hotline Session, ACC 2003.Google Scholar