Advertisement

In the Beirut Vilayet: A Description of Jabal ‘Amil

  • Tamara Chalabi
Chapter
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

The Shi‘is of Jabal ‘Amil are one example among many of a Muslim religious minority under orthodox Muslim Ottoman rule that lasted more than four centuries (1516–1918). Although the Ottoman Empire disintegrated following its defeat in World War One, its dominant Sunni political culture was transferred to the Arab nation states that were born of the empire’s former provinces. The case of Jabal ‘Amil is significant, as it fell within the jurisdiction of a French-created state, Lebanon, which underwent a distinct experience due to its multi-communitarian nature.

Keywords

Sixteenth Century Real Estate Investment Late Eighteenth Century Geographical Entity Tobacco Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    See the works of Abbé de Binos, Voyage au Mont-Liban (Paris, 1809); Henry Charles Churchill, Mount Lebanon: A Ten Years’ Residence, from 1842 to 1852: Describing the Manners, Customs, and Religion of Its Inhabitants, with a Full & Correct Account of the Druze Religion, and Containing Historical Records of the Mountain Tribes (Reading, 1994); Comte de Louis-Philippe-Albert d’Orléans, Damas et le Liban: extraits du journal d’un voyage en Syrie au printemps de 1860 (Londres, 1861); Constantin Volney, Voyage en Égypte et en Syrie (Paris, 1959); Vicomte de Marcellus, Souvenirs de l’Orient, 2 vols. (Paris, 1839); Alphonse de Lamartine, Voyage en Orient, 2 vols. (Paris, 1835); Ernest Renan, Correspondances 1856–1861; Mission de Phénicie (Brest, 1994); Valerie Boisser de Gaspirin, Voyage en Levant (Paris, 1878). 2. Sulayman Dahir, Dictionary of Jabal ‘Amil Villages, “Mu‘jam QuraGoogle Scholar
  2. 3.
    David Urquhart, The Lebanon (Mount Souria): A History and a Diary (London, 1860), pp. 95–96. 4. Muhammad Bahjat and Rafiq al-Tamimi, Wilayat Bayrut (Beirut,Google Scholar
  3. 14.
    Cf. E. Robinson, Séjour au Liban (Beirut, 1947); Louis Lortet, La Syrie d’aujourd’hui, voyages dans la Phénicie, le Liban et la Judée, 1875–1880 (Paris, 1884).Google Scholar
  4. 19.
    Jaber, “Pouvoir et société au Jabal ‘Amil de 1749 a 1920 dans la conscience des chroniqueurs chiites et dans un essai d’interprétation” (Ph.D. thesis, Paris IV, 1978), p. 10. 20. This is also mentioned in Dahir’s “Mu‘jam Qura Jabal ’Amil.”Google Scholar
  5. 23.
    Victor Guérin, Description géographique et archéologique de la Palestine, Part 3: Galilée (Paris, 1880), pp. 86–283; he mentions that the villages without any water reserve were rare.Google Scholar
  6. 25.
    Martha Mundy, “Village Authority and the Legal Order of Property (the Southern Hawran, 1876–1922),” in Roger Owen, ed., New Perspectives on Property and Land in the Middle East (Cambridge, Mass., 2001), p. 67.Google Scholar
  7. 33.
    Michael Gilsenan, “Land and Labour in North Lebanon 1858–1950,” in Tarif Khalidi, ed., Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut, 1984), p. 453.Google Scholar
  8. 44.
    Muhammad Jabir Al Safa, “Safahat min Tarikh Jabal ‘Amil: Jabal ’Amil Ba’d Zawal al-hukm al-‘Iqta’i,” in al-’Irfan, vol. 27 (1937), pp. 385–390.Google Scholar
  9. 47.
    Cf. Albert Hourani, “From Jabal ‘Amil to Persia,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 49, 1986; Rula Jurdi, “Migration and Social Change: The ’Ulama of Ottoman Jabal ‘Amil in Safavid Iran, 1501–1736” (Ph.D. thesis, Yale University, 1998); Ja’ far al-Muhajir, al-Hijra al-Amiliyya ila Iran: fi al-Asr al-Safawi: asbabuha al-Tarikhiyya wa-nata’ijuha al-thaqafiyya wa-al-siyasiyya (Beirut, 1988). 48. Roger Lescot, Les Chiites du Liban-Sud, Report to the Centre desGoogle Scholar
  10. 50.
    Rafiq and Bahjat, Wilayat Bayrut, p. 294. Tarif al-Khalidi, “Shaykh Ahmad ‘Arif al-Zayn and al-’Irfan,” in Marwan Buheiry, ed., Intellectual Life in the Arab East, 1890–1939 (Beirut, 1981), pp. 119–121.Google Scholar
  11. 75.
    Munzer Jaber, “Al-Shi‘a fi Jabal ’Amil bayn al-Mabda’iyya wal-hifaz ala al-dat,” in al-Muntalaq, vol. 105 (1993), p. 66.Google Scholar
  12. 79.
    Aykut Kansu, The Revolution of 1908 in Turkey (Leiden, 1997), pp. 228–229. Kansu mentions that Kamil al-Assaad changed political sides during his Mab‘uthan career. 80. Ibid.Google Scholar
  13. in William Polk and Richard Chambers, eds., The Beginnings of Modernization in the Middle East (Chicago, 1968), p. 46. 84. Hassan Hallaq, ed., Mudhakkarat Salim ‘Ali Salam (Beirut, 1982),Google Scholar
  14. 87.
    H. Humani, “Ya Ayyuha al-Mab’uth,” in JAN, December 2, 1911. The poem is in six long stanzas revolving around the same theme.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Tamara Chalabi 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamara Chalabi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations