British Colonial State Legacies and Development Trajectories:A Statistical Analysis of Direct and Indirect Rule

  • Matthew Lange
Part of the Political Evolution and Institutional Change book series (PEIC)


In his work on colonial legacies in sub-Saharan Africa, Crawford Young (1994) calls the colonial powers Bula Matari, a KiKongo phrase meaning “he who crushes rocks.” The term not only refers to the extreme power of the European imperialists in Africa but also to the revolutionary changes that colonization began.Indeed,beginning with Ceuta,the Azores,and the Canary Islands during the mid-fifteenth century and continuing to this day with a few outposts, colonization of foreign lands has been a cataclysmic series of events that dramatically transformed the lives and lifestyles of peoples throughout the world. Whole populations were annihilated while others went to live in far-of f places as part of the colonial machine, either as settlers, administrators, or laborers.As a consequence of this contact, local religions, markets, and states were either extensively transformed or completely destroyed and replaced by new ones.


British Colonial Colonial Rule Colonial Power State Governance Colonial State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson. 2001. “Colonial Origins of Comparative Development:An Empirical Investigation.” American Economic Review, 9, 15: 1369–1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. —. 2002. “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics,117,4: 1231–1294.Google Scholar
  3. Amsden, Alice. 1989. Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Asian Industrialization. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Banerjee, Abhijtit and Lakshmi Iyer. 2003. “History, Institutions and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India.” BREAD Working Paper No. 003.Google Scholar
  5. Bayart, Jean-François. 1993. The State in Africa:The Politics of the Belly.NewYork: Longman.Google Scholar
  6. Beckford, George. 1983. Persistent Poverty: Underdevelopment in Plantation Economies of the Third World. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  7. Bollen, Kenneth and Robert Jackman. 1985. “Political Democracy and the Size Distribution of Income.” American Sociological Review, 50, 4: 438–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boone, Catherine. 1992. Merchant Capital and the Roots of State Power in Senegal, 1930–1985. NewYork: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. —. 1994. “States and Ruling Classes in Postcolonial Africa: The Enduring Contradictions of Power.” In State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World,edited by J.Migdal,A. Kohli, and V. Shue. NewYork: Cambridge University Press, 108–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, David. 2000.“Democracy, Colonization, and Human Capital in sub-Saharan Africa.” Studies in Comparative International Development, 35, 1: 20–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bryce, James. 1914. The Ancient Roman Empire and the British Empire in India:The Diffusion of Roman and English Law Throughout the World: Two Historical Studies. NewYork: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Chanock, Martin. 1985. Law, Custom, and Social Order: The Colonial Experience in Malawi and Zambia. NewYork: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Clapham, Christopher. 1982.“The Politics of Failure: Clientelism, Political Instability and National Integration in Liberia and Sierra Leone.” In Private Patronage and Public Power, edited by C. Clapham. NewYork: St. Martin’s Press, 71–97.Google Scholar
  14. Cruise O’Brien, Donal. 1975. Saints and Politicians: Essays in the Organization of Senegalese Peasant Society. NewYork: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diamond, Jared. 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel:The Fates of Human Societies. NewYork:W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  16. Doha, A. H. M. S. 1957. Report of the Police Administration of the Province of East Pakistan for the Year1954. Decca: East Pakistan Government Press.Google Scholar
  17. Easterly,William and Ross Levine. 1997.“Africa’s Growth Tragedy:Policies and Ethnic Divisions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112: 1203–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edwardes, Michael. 1967. British India, 1772–1947: A Survey of the Nature and Effects of Alien Rule. London: Sidgwick and Jackson.Google Scholar
  19. Englebert, Pierre. 2000. “Solving the Mystery of the AFRICA Dummy.” World Development, 28, 10: 1821–1835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ferguson, Niall. 2002. Empire:The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Globall Power. NewYork: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  21. Firmin-Sellers, Kathryn. 2000.“Institutions, Context, and Outcomes: Explaining French and British Rule in West Africa.” Comparative Politics, 32, 3: 253–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fisher, Michael. 1991. Indirect Rule in India: Residents and the Residency System, 1764–1858. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Gopal, Ram. 1963. British Rule in India:An Assessment.NewYork:Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  24. Grier, Robin M. 1999.“Colonial Legacies and Economic Growth.” Public Choice, 98: 317–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Griffiths, Percival. 1971. The History of the Indian Police. London: Ernest Benn Limited.Google Scholar
  26. Hailey,William. 1938. An African Survey. NewYork: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hays,William. 1994. Statistics. NewYork: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Herbst, Jeffrey. 2000. States and Power in Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Huff,W. G. 1994. The Economic Growth of Singapore:Trade and Development in the Twentieth Century. NewYork: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaufmann, Daniel,Aart Kraay,and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton. 1999. Governance Matters. Policy Research Working Paper 2196.Washington, DC:World Bank.Google Scholar
  31. Kohli, Atul. 1994. “Where Do High Growth Political Economies Come From? The Japanese Lineage of Korea’s ‘Developmental State.’ ” World Development, 22, 9: 1269–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuczynski, Robert. 1948. Demographic Survey of the British Colonial Empire, Volume I. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. —. 1949. Demographic Survey of the British Colonial Empire, Volume II. I New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. —. 1953. Demographic Survey of the British Colonial Empire, Volume III. I New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kumar, Anand. 1989. State and Society in India: A Study of the State’s Agenda-Making, 1917–1977. New Delhi: Radiant Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Lange, Matthew. 2003.“Embedding the Colonial State:A Comparative-Historical Analysis of State Building and Broad-Based Development in Mauritius.” Social Science History, 27, 3: 397–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. —. 2004a. “British Colonial Legacies and Political Development.” World Development, 32, 6: 905–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. —. 2004b. “Structural Holes and Structural Synergies: A Comparative-Historical Analysis of State-Society Relations and Development in Colonial Sierra Leone and Mauritius.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology,44, 4: 372–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. LaPorta, Rafael,Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes,Andrei Shleifer, and RobertVishny. 1999.“The Quality of Government.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 1, 15: 222–282.Google Scholar
  40. Lee, John Michael. 1967. Colonial Development and Good Government:A study of the Ideas Expressed by the British of ficial Classes in Planning Decolonization, 1939–1964. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  41. Lugard, Fredrick. 1922. The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa. London:W. Blackwood and Sons.Google Scholar
  42. Mahoney, James. 2003. “Long-Run Development and the Legacy of Colonialism in Spanish America.” American Journal of Sociology, 109, 1: 51–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and Subject. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Mann, Michael. 1984.“The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms, and Results.” European Journal of Sociology, 25: 185–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McEvedy, Colin and Richard Jones. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. NewYork: Facts on File.Google Scholar
  46. Merry, Sally Engle. 1991.“Law and Colonialism.” Law and Society Review, 25, 4: 889–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Migdal, Joel. 1988. Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Porter, Bernard. 1996. The Lion’s Share:A Short History of British Imperialism, 1850–1995. NewYork: Longman.Google Scholar
  49. Putterman, Louis. 2000. “Can an Evolutionary Approach to Development Predict Post-War Economic Growth?” Journal of Development Studies, 36, 3: 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reno,William. 1995. Corruption and State Politics in Sierra Leone. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Roberts, Richard and Kristin Mann. 1991.“Law in Colonial Africa.” In Law in Colonial Africa,edited by K. Mann and R. Roberts. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  52. Robinson, Ronald. 1972. “Non-European Foundations of European Imperialism: Sketch for a Theory of Collaboration.” In Studies in the Theory of Imperialism, edited by R. Owen and B. Sutcliff. London: Longman, 117–140.Google Scholar
  53. Scott, James. 1972. “The Erosion of Patron-Client Bonds and Social Change in Rural Southeast Asia.” Journal of Asian Studies, 3, 1: 5–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sokolof f, K. and Engerman, S. 2000.“Institutions, Factor Endowments, and Paths of Development in the New World.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14, 3: 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tilly, Charles. 1992. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD990–1992. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  56. Wade, Robert. 1990. Governing the Market. Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Young, Crawford. 1994. The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Matthew Lange and Dietrich Rueschemeyer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew Lange

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations