Flows and Counterflows: Latinas/os, Blackness, and Racialization in Hemispheric Perspective

  • Suzanne Oboler
  • Anani Dzidzienyo


Who are the Afro-Latin Americans?3 What historical contributions do they bring to their respective national polities? What is the nature of their identity? What happens to their identities as a result of migration to the United States? What do we know of the experience of the second and subsequent generations of Afro-Latin American immigrants categorized under the current social labels as “Afro-Latinas/os” in the United States? What is the impact of their growing presence within Latina/o populations, particularly with respect to the dynamics of race relations in the United States today? And, more generally, what are the possible goals, the prospects, and obstacles for coalition building between and among racial(ized) minorities and other groups in U.S. society today?


Indigenous People Affirmative Action Latin American Country Racial Identity African Descent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andrews, George Reid. 2004. Afro-Latin America, 1800–2000. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Beckwith, Francis J., and Todd E. Jones. 1997. Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Reverse Discrimination? New York: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  3. Betancur, John J., and Todd E. Jones, eds. 1997. Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Reverse Discrimination? Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  4. Betancur, John J., and Douglas C. Gills, eds. 2000. The Collaborative City: Opportunities and Struggles for Blacks and Latinos in U.S. Cities. New York and London: Garland.Google Scholar
  5. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2003. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  6. Brysk, Alison. 1994. Acting globally: Indian rights and international politics in Latin America. In Indigenous Peoples and Democracy in Latin America, ed. Donna Lee Van Cott. New York: St. Martin’s Press/Inter-American Dialogue.Google Scholar
  7. Callirgos, Juan Carlos. 1993. El racismo: La cuestión del otro (y de uno). Lima: Desco.Google Scholar
  8. Casaús Arzú, Marta Elena. 1998. La metamorfosis del racismo en Guatemala. Guatemala: Cholsamaj.Google Scholar
  9. Chafe, William H. 1986. The end of one struggle, the beginning of another. In The Civil Rights Movement in America, ed. Charles W. Eagles, 127–148. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.Google Scholar
  10. Collier, George. 1994. Basta! Land and the Zapatista Rebellion in Chiapas. Oregon: Institute for Food and Development.Google Scholar
  11. Conniff, Michael L., and Thomas J. Davis. 1994. Africans in the Americas: A History of the Black Diaspora. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cruz, José E. 1998. Identity and Power: Puerto Rican Politics and the Challenge of Ethnicity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Curry, George, ed. 1997. The Affirmative Action Debates. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  14. Da Matta, Roberto. Do you know who you’re talking to? In Carnivals, Rogues and Heroes: An Anthropology of the Brazilian Dilemma, 429–442. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  15. Darder, Antonia, and Rodolfo D. Torres. 2003. Mapping Latino studies: Critical reflections on class and social theory. Latino Studies 1 (2):303–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Alencar, José Almino. 2002, Joaquím Nabuco: O dever da política; radicalizmo e desencanto. Rio de Janeiro: Edições Casa de Rui Barbosa.Google Scholar
  17. de Carvalho Neto, Paulo. 1977. Folklore of the black struggle in Latin America. Latin American Perspectives 17, Spring.Google Scholar
  18. De Genova, Nicholas, and Ana Y. Ramos-Zayas. 2003. Latino Crossings: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and the Politics of Race and Citizenship. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. —, eds. 1978. Latino racial formations in the United States. Special issue, Journal of Latin American Anthropology, 8(2): 53–58.Google Scholar
  20. Degler, Carl N. 1971. Neither Black nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  21. de la Cadena, Marisol. 1998. Silent racism and intellectual superiority in Peru. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 143–164.Google Scholar
  22. de la Fuente, Alejandro. 2001. A Nation for All: Race, Inequality, and Politics in Twentieth-Century Cuba. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  23. de Langsdorff, E. 1999. Diário de Baronesa E. de Langsdorff relatando sua viagem ao Brasil por ocasião do casamento de S.A.R. o príncipe de Joinville: 1842–1843. Trans. Patrícia Chittoni Ramos and Marco Antonio Toledo Neder. Florianópolis, S.C.: EDUNISC.Google Scholar
  24. Díaz-Polanco, Héctor. 1999. Autonomía regional: La autoderminación de los pueblos indios. 3rd ed. Mexico City: Siglo XXI.Google Scholar
  25. dos Santos, José Rufino. 1996. O negro como lugar. In Raça, ciência e sociedade, ed. Marcos Chor Maio and Ricardo Ventura Santos, 219–224. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Fiocruz.Google Scholar
  26. Dzidzienyo, Anani. 1979. Activity and inactivity in the politics of Afro-Latin America. SECOLAS Annals 9 (March):48–61.Google Scholar
  27. —. 1995. Conclusion. In No Longer Invisible: Afro-Latin Americans Today, Minority Rights Group. London: Minority Rights Group.Google Scholar
  28. —. 2003. Coming to terms with the African connection in Latino studies. Latino Studies 1 (1):160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elkins, Stanley. 1959. Slavery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  30. England, Saralı, and Mark Anderson. 1998. Authentic African culture in Honduras? Afro-Central Americans challenge Honduran mestizaje. Paper presented at the 21st LASA international Congress, Chicago, IL, September 24–27. Scholar
  31. Fernandes, Florestan. 1969. The Negro in Brazilian Society. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Fink, Leon. 2003. The Maya of Morganton: Work and Community in the Nuevo New South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Forbes, Jack. 1992. The Hispanic spin: Party politics and governmental manipulation of ethnic identity. Latin American Perspectives 75(19):4, 59–78.Google Scholar
  34. Franklin, John Hope et al. 1998. One America in the 21st Century: Forging a New Future: The Advisory Board’s Report to the President. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  35. Frederickson, George M. 2002. Racism: A Short History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Fuchs, Lawrence H. 1997. What we should Count and why. Society 34, no. 6 (September–October): 24–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. —. 1990. The reaction of Black Americans to immigration. In Immigration Reconsidered: History, Sociology, and Politics, ed. Virginia Yans-McLaughlin, 293–314. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Fuentes, Carlos. 1996. Latinoamerica en la cumbre de Copenhague. Scholar
  39. Gall, Olivia. 1998. Los elementos histórico-estructurales del racismo en Chiapas. In Nación, racismo e identidad, ed. Alicia Castellanos Guerrero and Juán Manuel Sandoval, 143–191. Mexico: Editorial Nuestro Tiempo.Google Scholar
  40. Graham, Richard, ed. 1990. The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870–1940. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  41. Greider, William. 1992. Who Will Tell the People. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  42. Griffith, Stephanie. 1991. Area’s Black Hispanics torn between two cultures: Many feel pressure, tug of history Washington Post, October 8, A10.Google Scholar
  43. Guimarães, Antonio Sérgio. 2001. The misadventures of non-racialism in Brazil. In Beyond Racism: Race and Inequality in Brazil South Africa, and the United States, ed. Charles V. Hamilton et al., 157–185. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. —. 2000. Racismo e anti-racismo no Brasil. São Paulo, Brazil: Editora 34 Ltda.Google Scholar
  45. Hale, Charles R. 1996. Introduction to “mestizaje.” Special issue, Journal of Latin American Anthropology 1(2).Google Scholar
  46. Hamilton, Charles V. et al, eds. 2001. Beyond Racism: Race and Inequality in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Hanchard, Michael. 1999. Racial Politics in Contemporary Brazil. Durham and London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Helg, Aline. 1995. Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886–1912. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  49. Hernández, Tanya K. 2003. “Too black to be Latina/o”: Blackness and Blacks as foreigners in Latino studies. Latino Studies 1 (1) : 152–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holmes, Steven A. 1998. Clinton panel on race urges variety of modest measures. New York Times, September 18, A1.Google Scholar
  51. James, Winston. 2001. The peculiarities of Afro-Hispanic radicalism in the United States: the political trajectories of Arturo Schomburg and Jesús Colón. In African Roots/American Cultures, ed. Sheila S. Walker, 195–231. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  52. Jaynes, Gerald D., ed. 2000. Immigration and Race: New Challenges to American Democracy. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  53. La Ferla, Ruth. 2003. Generation E.A.—ethnically ambiguous. New York Times, sec. 9, December 28.Google Scholar
  54. LeDuff, Charlie. 2000. At a slaughterhouse, some things never die: Who kills, who cuts, who bosses can depend on race. New York Times, June 16, A1.Google Scholar
  55. Lipsitz, George. 2003. Noises in the blood: Culture, conflict, and mixed-race identities. In Crossing Lines: Race and Mixed Race Across the Geohistorical Divide, ed. Marc Coronado, Rudy P. Guevarra, Jr., Jeffrey Moniz, and Laura Furlan Szanto, 19–44. Santa Barbara: Multiethnic Student Outreach/University of California at Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  56. López, Ian F. Haney. 1996. White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. New York and London: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Mallon, Florencia. 1996. Constructing mestizaje in Latin America: Authenticity, marginality, and gender in the claiming of ethnic identities. Journal of Latin American Anthropology 2 (1): 170–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marable, Manning. 1996. Staying on the path to racial equality. In The Affirmative Action Debates, ed. George Curry, 3–16. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  59. Márquez, Roberto. 2000. Raza, racismo e historia: Are all of my bones from there? Latino Research Review 4 (3): 8–22.Google Scholar
  60. Marriot, Michel. 1996. Multiracial Americans ready to claim their own identity New York Times, July 20.Google Scholar
  61. Martínez, Elizabeth. 1998. It’s a terrorist war on immigrants, 1995-present. In De Colores Means All of Us: Latina Views for a Multi-Colored Century, ed. Elizabeth Martínez. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  62. McClain, Paula. 1996. Coalition and competition: Patterns of Black-Latino relations in urban politics. In The Politics of Minority Coalition, ed. Wilbur C. Rich, 53–64. London and Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  63. Mendez, Juán E., Guillermo A. O’Donnell, and Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, eds. 1999. The (Un) Rule of Law and the Underprivileged in Latin America. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  64. Mindiola, Tatcho, Jr., Yolanda Flores-Niemann, and Néstor Rodríguez. 2002. Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  65. Minority Rights Group. No Longer Invisible: Blacks in Latin America. 1995. London: Minority Rights Group.Google Scholar
  66. Mitchell, Michael. 1983. Race, legitimacy, and the state in Brazil. Paper presented at LASA International Congress, Mexico City, September 29–October 1.Google Scholar
  67. Montoya Rojas, Rodrigo. 1998. Multiculturalidad y política: Derechos indígenas, cuidadanos y humanos. Lima: Sur. Casa de Estudios del Socialismo.Google Scholar
  68. Moore, Robin. 1997. Nationalizing Blackness: Afrocubanismo and Artistic Revolution in Havana, 1920–1940. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  69. Mörner, Magnus. 1967. Race Mixture in the History of Latin America, Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  70. Morse, Richard. 1968. The heritage of Latin America. In The Founding of New Societies, ed. L. Hartz. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.Google Scholar
  71. Murphy, Arthur D., Colleen Blanchard, and Jennifer A. Hill, eds. 2001. Latino Workers in the Contemporary South. Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  72. Myrdal, Gunnar et al. 1969. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and American Democracy. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  73. Oboler, Suzanne. 1995. Ethnic Labels, Latino Lives: Identity and the Politics of (Re) Presentation in the United States. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  74. —. 2000a. “It must be a fake”: Racial ideologies, identities, and the question of rights in the Americas. In Hispanics/Latinos in the United States: Ethnicity, Race, and Rights, ed. Jorge Gracia. New York and London: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
  75. —. 2000b. Racializing Latinos in the United States: Toward a new research paradigm. In Identities on the Move: Transnational Processes in North America and the Caribbean Basin, ed. Liliana R. Goldin, 45–68. Albany and Austin: Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  76. Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. 1986. Racial Formations in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  77. Rahier, Jean. 1999. Mami, ¿qué será lo que quiere el negro?: Representaciones racistas en la revista Vistazo, 1957–1991. In Ecuador racista: Imágenes e identidades, ed. Emma Cervone and Fredy Rivera, 73–110. Quito: Flacso-Ecuador.Google Scholar
  78. Rappaport, Joanne, ed. 1996. Ethnicity reconfigured: Indigenous legislators and the Colombian constitution of 1991. Special issue Journal of Latin American Anthropology 1 (2).Google Scholar
  79. Rivera, Raquel Z. 2003. Nuyoricans from the Hip Hop Zone. New York: Palgrave Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rodríguez, Clara. 2000. Changing Race: Latinos, the Census, and the History of Ethnicity in the United States. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Root, Maria P. P., ed. 1996. The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as the New Frontier. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  82. Rout, Leslie. 1976. The African Experience in Spanish America, 1502 to the Present, New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Rubin, Vera, ed. (1957) 1970. Caribbean Studies: A Symposium. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  84. Safa, Helen. 1998. Race and national identity in the Americas. Special issue Latin American Perspectives 25 (3).Google Scholar
  85. Steinberg, Stephen. 1996. Turning Back: The Retreat from, Racial Justice in American Thought and Policy. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  86. Tannenbaum, Frank. (1946) 1993. Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americas. New York: Alfred Knopf.Google Scholar
  87. Thomas, Piri. 1991 (1967). Down These Alean Streets. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  88. Torres, Andres. 1995. Between Melting Pot and Mosaic: African Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York Economy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Torres, Arlene, and Norman Whitten, Jr., eds. 1998. Blackness in Latin America and the Caribbean and Cultural Transformations. 2 vols. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Torres-Saillant, Silvio. 2003. Inventing the race: Latinos and the ethno-racial pentagon. Latino Studies 1 (1): 123–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vaca, Nicolás C. 2004. The Presumed Alliance: The Unspoken Conflict between Latinos and Blacks and What It Means for America. HarperCollins/Rayo.Google Scholar
  92. Van Cott, Donna Lee. 1994. Indigenous peoples and democracy: Issues for policymakers. In Indigenous Peoples and Democracy in Latin America, ed. Donna Lee Van Cott. New York: St. Martin’s Press/Inter-American Dialogue.Google Scholar
  93. Wade, Peter. 1985. Race and class: The case of South American Blacks. Ethnic and Racial Studies 2 (8): 233–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. —. 1993. Blackness and Race Mixture: The Dynamics of Racial Identity in Colombia. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  95. —. 1997. Race and Ethnicity in Latin America. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  96. Walker, Sheila S., ed. 2001. African Roots/American Cultures. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  97. Williams, Eric. 1994. Capitalism and Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  98. Winant, Howard. 2002. The World Is a Ghetto. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  99. —. 1994. Racial Conditions: Politics, Theory, Comparisons. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  100. Wright, Lawrence. 1994. One drop of blood. New Yorker, July 25, 46–55.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Anani Dzidzienyo and Suzanne Oboler 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne Oboler
  • Anani Dzidzienyo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations