Political Associations, Parties, and the Press

  • Sheldon Gellar


Tocqueville asserted that democracy could not sustain liberty and flourish without political associations. Political associations served as “great free schools to which all citizens come to be taught the general theory of association.” Since political parties were not highly structured in his day,Tocqueville often used political parties and political associations interchangeably.


Political Party Presidential Election Radio Station Political Association Opposition Parti 
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Chapter Six Political Associations, Parties, and the Press

  1. 9.
    For Senegalese clan politics and patron—client relationships, see Robert Fatton, Jr., “Clientelism and Patronage in Senegal,” African Studies Review, Vol. 29, No. 4 (December 1986), pp. 61–78 andCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  5. 17.
    Opposition demands for electoral reform increased sharply after the 1988 elections. See Crawford Young and Babacar Kanté, “Governance, Democracy, and the 1988 Senegalese Elections,” in Goren Hyden and Michael Bratton (eds.), Government and Politics in4frica (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1992) p. 65. For the provisions of the 1991 electoral code, see L’Unité, No. 195 (September 1991), p. 4.Google Scholar
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  7. 21.
    Sheldon Gellar, “Pluralisme ou jacobinisme: quelle démocratie pour le Sénégal,” in Momar-Coumba Diop (ed.), Le Sénégal Contemporain (Paris: Editions Karthala, 2002), pp. 523–525.Google Scholar
  8. 30.
    For a detailed analysis of these associations, see Momar-Coumba Diop and Mamadou Diouf, Le Sénégal sous Abdou Diouf: État et Société (Paris: Karthala, 1990), pp. 115–148.Google Scholar
  9. 32.
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  10. 34.
    Abdou Latif Coulibaly, Wade, un opposant au pouvoir: L’alternance piégée? (Dakar: Les Éditions Sentinneles, 2003).Google Scholar
  11. 37.
    For more on this theme, see Sidy Lamine Niasse, Un arabisant entre presse et pouvoir (Dakar: Editions Groupe Wal Fadjri, 2003), pp. 78–82.Google Scholar

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© Sheldon Gellar 2005

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