The New Conflict Managers: Peacebuilding NGOs and State Agendas
The number of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) of all types, including international, domestic, development, human rights, has dramatically increased in the last decades. Of this overall trend, Lester Salamon exults: “a veritable associational revolution now seems underway at the global level that may constitute as significant a social and political development of the latter twentieth century as the rise of the nation state was of the nineteenth century.”1 As this chapter will explore below, there are multiple explanations for this trend. Insofar as this growth of NGOs may be pegged to changes in the behavior of nation-states, one might argue that NGOs have taken on functions that states have failed at or are ill-suited to manage. Alternatively, it can be argued that states are purposefully, particularly through financing, encouraging NGOs to take on certain responsibilities when it is in the interest of those states not to become directly involved.
KeywordsConflict Manager Nongovernmental Organization Global Governance Conflict Zone Humanitarian Relief
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Lester Salamon, The Global Associational Revolution: The Rise of the Third Sector on the World Scene, Occasional Paper 15 (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Institute for Policy Studies, 1993), 1. There were 176 international NGOs in 1909 and 28,900 by 1993. See Commission on Global Governance, Our Common Neighborhood: The Report of the Commission on Global Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995). Statistics for growth of domestic NGOs can also be found in Thomas G. Weiss and Leon Gordenker, eds. NGOs, the UN, and Global Governance (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1996).Google Scholar
- 4.Jackie Smith, “Transnational Political Processes and the Human Rights Movement,” Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Change 18 (1995): 185–219, 193.Google Scholar
- 5.James N. Rosenau, Turbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity (Princeton ND: Princeton University Press, 1990), 3–20.Google Scholar
- 6.Seyom Brown, International Relations in a Changing Global System: Toward a Theory of the World Polity (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992), 115–27.Google Scholar
- 11.Paul Ghils, “International Civil Society: International Non-governmental Organizations in the International System,” International Social Science Journal 133, no. 3 (1992): 417–29, 429.Google Scholar
- 12.Michael Edwards and David Hulme, eds., Beyond the Magic Bullet: NGO Performance Accountability in the Post-Cold War World (West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1996).Google Scholar
- 31.See Farouk Mawlawi, “New Conflicts, New Challenges: The Evolving Role for Non-governmental Actors,” Journal of International Affairs 46, no. 2 (1993): 391–413, 413; Kumar Rupesingh, The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations in Early Warning and Conflict Resolution (London: International Alert, 1993); Mohmaed Sahnoun, “Managing Conflict After the Cold War;” Peace Review 8, no. 4 (1996): 485–92; Paul Wehr, “The Citizen Intervenor,” Peace Review 8, no. 4 (1996): 555–61; David Smock, ed., Private Peacemaking: USIP-Assisted Peacemaking Projects of Nonprofit Organizations, Peaceworks No. 20 (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, May 1998).Google Scholar
- 47.Michael Small, “Peacebuilding in Postconflict Societies” in Human Security and the New Diplomacy, ed. Rob McRae and Don Hubert, 75–80 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001).Google Scholar
- 48.Mary Anderson, Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support Peace—Or War (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1999).Google Scholar