• Ruth Vanita


This book demonstrates that same-sex marriage, a social reality in India as well as the West today, has roots in the past. Its antecedents—marriage-like unions—appear in a variety of Euro-American and Indian texts. I argue that both in the past and in the present, mutual consent and family and community recognition validate a marriage; and this extra-legal validation sometimes extends to same-sex marriages too. While state recognition is desirable, the state’s refusal to recognize a union as marriage does not mean that the union is not a marriage.


Interracial Marriage Civil Marriage Female Couple Erotic Love Love Marriage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Chapter 1 Introduction

  1. 2.
    Robert Wintemute and Mads Andenaes, Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Partnerships: A Study of National, European and International Law ( Portland, OR: Hart Publishing, 2001 ).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    See Evan Wolfson, Why Marriage Matters ( New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004 ).Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    Bruce Bagemihl, Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity ( New York: St. Martin’s, 1998 ).Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    See Sheikh Abrar Husain, Marriage Customs among Muslims in India ( Delhi: Sterling, 1976 ).Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    See Martin Ottenheimer, Forbidden Relatives: The American Myth of Cousin Marriage ( Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1996 ).Google Scholar
  6. 17.
    Mark D. Jordan, The Invention of Sodomy in Christian Theology ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997 ).Google Scholar
  7. 19.
    See Bina Fernandez and Gomathy N.B., The Nature of Violence Faced by Lesbian Women in India ( Mumbai: Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 2003 ).Google Scholar
  8. 53.
    Mark D. Jordan, The Invention of Sodomy in Christian Theology ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997 ), 17.Google Scholar
  9. 57.
    Vaman Shivram Apte, The Student’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary ( Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2000 ), 319.Google Scholar
  10. 63.
    Peter Brown, The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1998 ).Google Scholar

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© Ruth Vanita 2005

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  • Ruth Vanita

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