The Gray Zone Expanded

  • Joram Warmund
Part of the Italian and Italian American Studies book series (IIAS)

Abstract

The study of the Holocaust creates its own momentum; every question leads to tentative answers, and they, in turn, raise new dilemmas. For example: Was the Holocaust unique? An affirmative or a negative response raises serious moral, psychological, theological, and historical considerations that certainly could not be answered in this essay; and this issue, one might reasonably argue, is a relatively “easy” one.

Keywords

Europe Boulder Clarification Baltic Language 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Some of the standard texts would be: Yehuda Bauer, A History of the Holocaust (New York: Franklin Watts, 1982).Google Scholar
  3. Lucy Davidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933–1945 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1975).Google Scholar
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  6. Leni Yahil, The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).Google Scholar
  7. 3.
    Raul Hilberg, Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe, 1933–1945 (New York: Harper Collins, 1992).Google Scholar
  8. 4.
    Saul Friedländer, Nazi Germany and the Jews: The Years of Persecution, 1933–1939 (New York: Harper Collins, 1997).Google Scholar
  9. 5.
    Yehuda Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), 118.Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    Primo Levi, The Drowned and the Saved (New York: Vintage International, 1989).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Inga Clendinnen, Reading the Holocaust (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Tadeusz Debski, A Battlefield of Ideas: Nazi Concentration Camps and Their Polish Prisoners (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Terrence Des Pres, The Survivor: An Anatomy of Life in the Death Camps (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 59.Google Scholar
  14. 22.
    Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 1986), 418–429.Google Scholar
  15. 35.
    Cf. Abraham J. Edelheit and Hershel Edelheit, History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994), particularly part 2, entitled, “Dictionary of Holocaust Terms.” Also, Debski, Battlefield of Ideas, in the section entitled, “Camp Language,” 263–265.Google Scholar
  16. 42.
    Cf. Gita Sereny, Into that Darkness, An Examination of Conscience (New York: Vintage Books, 1983), passimGoogle Scholar
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    Cf. e.g., Olga Lengyel, Five Chimneys: The Story of Auschwitz (Chicago: Ziff-Davis, 1947), 1, which opens with a “mea culpa”Google Scholar
  19. Also, see Anton Gill, The Journey Back From Hell, Conversations with Concentration Camp Survivors: An Oral History (New York: Avon Books, 1988), 15, 92, passim.Google Scholar
  20. 44.
    Cf. Gill, Oral History, passim; also, Lawrence L. Langer, Holocaust Testimonies, The Ruins of Memory (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  21. 45.
    Cf. Isaaiah Trunk, Judenrat: The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe Under Nazi Occupation (New York: Macmillan, 1972)Google Scholar
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  23. Lucjan Dobroszycki, ed., The Chronicle of the Lódz Ghetto, 1941–1944 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984)Google Scholar
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  25. 46.
    For a lengthy treatment of the process of social acceptance and eventual widespread support of Nazi racial policy see Michael Burleigh and Wolfgang Wippermann, The Racial State, Germany 1933–1945 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991)Google Scholar
  26. also, see Robert Gellatelly, Backing Hitler, Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  28. see as well Eichmann recounting that “my superiors held the knife to my throat,” and “there was nothing I could do,” in reference to the sending of an Evangelical clergyman into “protective custody” for aiding and “interceding with the authorities in favor of Jews” in Jochen von Lang with Claus Sibyll, Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police (New York: Da Capo Press, 1999), 107.Google Scholar
  29. As for the role of ordinary people as executioners, see Christopher R. Browning, Ordinary Men, Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, with a new Afterword (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998) andGoogle Scholar
  30. Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996).Google Scholar
  31. 49.
    Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz, the Nazi Assault on Humanity (New York: Collier Books, 1984), 44.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Stanislao G. Pugliese 2005

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  • Joram Warmund

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