Tackling Difference in the Conservative Heartland of Canada

  • Darren E. Lund


Sometimes life’s pivotal educational moments reveal themselves in unexpected situations. Like many other white mainstream Canadians, I have grown up virtually oblivious to an invisible bubble of white privilege, attending to instances of inequity and racism mainly for the purposes of telling inappropriate racist jokes. In 1987, however, during my first year of teaching high school in Red Deer, Alberta, Canada, a group of students in one of my nonacademic English classes at Lindsay Thurber Comprehensive High School opened my eyes to the potential for educators to work with students toward challenging racism and tackling issues of difference in school settings.


Social Justice Language Teacher Canadian Association White Privilege Hate Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alberta Human Rights and Citizenship Commission. (2000). Tools for Transformation: Human Rights Education and Diversity Initiatives in Alberta. Edmonton, AB: Government of Alberta.Google Scholar
  2. Apple, Michael W (1993). Official Knowledge: Democratic Education in a Conservative Age. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Baergen, William P. (2000). The Ku Klux Klan in Central Alberta, Red Deer, AB; Central Alberta Historical Society.Google Scholar
  4. Berlin, Myrna, and Ibrahim Alladin. (1996). “The Kipling Collegiate Institute Story: Towards Positive Race Relations in the School.” In Racism in Canadian Schools, ed. Ibrahim Alladin. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, pp. 136–165.Google Scholar
  5. Bissoondath, Neil. (1994). Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada. Toronto: Penguin.Google Scholar
  6. Boyko, John. (1995). Last Steps to Freedom: The Evolution of Canadian Racism. Winnipeg, MB: Watson & Dwyer.Google Scholar
  7. Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (2001). CRRF 2001 Best Practices Reader. Toronto, ON: Author.Google Scholar
  8. Cogan, Karen, and Steve Ramsankar. (1994). Alex Taylor Community School: A Quarter Century of Programs and Promises. Edmonton, AB: Alex Taylor School.Google Scholar
  9. Darling-Hammond, Linda. “The Right to Learn and the Advancement of Teaching: Research, Policy, and Practice for Democratic Education.” Educational Researcher 25:6 (1996): 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fullan, Michael, and Andy Hargreaves (eds.). (1992). Teacher Development and Educational Change. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gairdner, William D. (1991). The Trouble with Canada. Toronto: General Paperbacks.Google Scholar
  12. Giroux, Henry A. (1996). Fugitive Cultures: Race, Violence, and Youth. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Griffith, Bryant, and George Labercane. (1995). “High School Students’ Attitudes Towards Racism in Canada: A Report on a 1993 Cross-Cultural Study.” In Multicultural Education: The State of the Art, Report #2, ed. Keith A. McLeod. Winnipeg, MB: Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers.Google Scholar
  14. Hargreaves, Andy. “Revisiting Voice.” Educational Researcher 25:1 (1996): 12–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Henry, Frances, Carol Tator, Winston Mattis, and Tim Rees. (1995). The Colour of Democracy: Racism in Canadian Society, Toronto, ON: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  16. Kehoe, John W. “Multicultural Education vs. Anti-Racist Education: The Debate and the Research in Canada.” Social Education 58 (1994): 354–358.Google Scholar
  17. Kennedy, Cameron. “New Student Group Fights Anti-gay Bias at Local High School.” Red Deer Advocate, November 20, 2000.Google Scholar
  18. Kinsella, Warren. (2001). Web of Hate: Inside Canada’s Far Right Network (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  19. Ladson-Billings, Gloria. (1995). “Multicultural Teacher Education: Research, Practice, Policy.” In Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education, ed. James A. Banks and Cherry A. McGee Banks. New York: Macmillan, pp. 36–51.Google Scholar
  20. Lund, Darren E. (1993). “The Evolution of STOP—Students and Teachers Opposing Prejudice.” In Multicultural Education: The State of the Art National Study; Report #1, ed. Keith A. McLeod. Winnipeg: Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers, pp. 26–45.Google Scholar
  21. Lund, Darren E. “Social Justice Activism in a Conservative Climate: Students and Teachers Challenging Discrimination in Alberta.” Our Schools/Our Selves 9:4 (1998): 24–38.Google Scholar
  22. Lund, Darren E. “Promoting Human Rights in the Conservative Heartland of Canada: A Practical/Theoretical Approach to School-Based Activism.” Journal of Intergroup Relations 28:2 (2001): 63–72.Google Scholar
  23. Lund, Darren E. “Educating for Social Justice: Making Sense of Multicultural and Antiracist Theory and Practice with Canadian Teacher Activists.” Intercultural Education 14 (2003): 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McGregor, Josette, and Charles Ungerleider. (1993). “Multicultural and Racism Awareness Programs for Teachers: A Meta-Analysis of the Research.” In Multicultural Education: The State of the Art National Study, Report #1, ed. Keith A. McLeod. Winnipeg: Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers.Google Scholar
  25. Smith, Jan, and Jon Young, (1996). “Building an Anti-Racist School: The Story of Victor Magel School.” In Multicultural Education: The State of the Art National Study, Report #4, ed. Keith A. McLeod. Winnipeg, MB: Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers.Google Scholar
  26. Solomon, R. Patrick. “Beyond Prescriptive Pedagogy: Teacher Inservice Education for Cultural Diversity.” Journal of Teacher Education 46 (1995): 251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Solomon, R. Patrick, and Cynthia Levine-Rasky. “When Principle Meets Practice: Teachers’ Contradictory Responses to Anti-Racist Education.” Alberta Journal of Educational Research 4.2 (1996): 19–33.Google Scholar
  28. SooHoo, Suzanne. (1995). “Emerging Student and Teacher Voices: A Syncopated Rhythm in Public Education.” In Critical Multiculturalism: Uncommon Voices in a Common Struggle, ed. Barry Kanpol and Peter McLaren. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, pp. 89–101.Google Scholar
  29. Walker, James W. S. (1985). Racial Discrimination in Canada: The Black Experience. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Historical Association.Google Scholar
  30. Willinsky, John. “The Educational Politics of Identity and Category.” Interchange 29 (1998): 385–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wiwa, Ken. (2001). “The Apostle of Forgiveness.” The Globe and Mail, May 5, 2001.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter Pericles Trifonas 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darren E. Lund

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations