Within Europe, despite this opposition to exploration and settlement in distant lands, there were many key figures who promoted empire, so that a disjunction or tension existed within various Western European cultures over expansion. The contest over expansion was as internal as it was external and that tension varied from time to time, state to state, empire to empire. Often these promoters of “empire” had the ear of monarchs or counselors, and their writings were rhetorically pitched in persuading king, queen, and court of the wisdom as well as material and spiritual benefits of exploring and possessing overseas lands. While Spain had a head-start in creating settlements in the New World, the very knowledge it built up during its colonization became useful for other European countries in framing their desire to expand and in helping them to understand the practicalities of that expansion. The possession of knowledge of the New World helped the French and English, just as it had the Spanish, to the possession of the New World. Here, I concentrate on three major writers of the New World—Oviedo, royal historiographer in Spain; Thevet, royal cosmographer in France, and Hakluyt, editor, collector, and adviser to the English court—and their prefatory matter, which includes epistles dedicatory, Prefaces, addresses to readers, and patrons and commendatory verse. This matter, which is a genre and thus includes a code of expectations, is often promotional and involves the selling of an idea, if not of a book.
KeywordsEurope Assimilation Turkey Egypt Topo
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