After Spain

  • Jonathan Hart


The French and English questioned the Spanish imperium, and sometimes their own empires, but no amount of questioning, as intricately ambivalent and as admirable as it might seem to us on the dry side of empire, could halt the push to translate empire. This almost obsession that the English and French had with Spain is a central part of this discussion. It is also important to remember that Jean de Léry and Michel de Montaigne used the St. Bartholomew’s Massacre of 1572 as a marker of French barbarity. The Spanish were not alone in condemning themselves. How much the English could express and reveal this self-criticism early on, beyond Thomas More’s general satire, is an open question. This discussion leads to that about the opposition from within. Despite opposition to exploration and the expansion, European voyages and settlement in the New World persisted. The tensions between opposition to and promotion of expansion is something the following chapters explore, but for now the question of emulation, rivalry, and displacement is a central concern.


Permanent Settlement English Court Spanish Coloni Precious Stone Colonial Policy 
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© Jonathan Hart 2005

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  • Jonathan Hart

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