Commodore Matthew C. Perry’s expedition to Japan in 1853 and 1854 is characterized as having “opened up” Japan1 and ushered in a period of transformation beginning with the Meiji Restoration (1867–1868). The history of the Meiji era (1868–1912) has received special attention2 but the role of science, technology, and medicine in the transformations that Japan underwent at that time and in the decades that immediately followed, has yet to be revisited.


Japanese People Medical Discourse Western Technology Meiji Period Silk Industry 
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© Morris Low 2005

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