Carlo Tresca pp 123-134 | Cite as

New Enemies

  • Nunzio Pernicone
Part of the Italian and Italian American Studies book series (IIAS)

Abstract

Every major power in Europe on the eve of World War I was beset by domestic i problems that proved irresolvable in the absence of far-reaching reforms. Significant changes to the status quo, however, were not on any government’s agenda. Instead, as the eminent historian Felix Gilbert observed, “there originated a longing for a turn of events which would make all these intractable problems disappear. To some politicians, weary of seeing their nation divided into hostile camps, war seemed to promise the restoration of a common purpose”1 By the end of the Great War, all the optimistic expectations entertained by the belligerents, particularly the notion that the problems of pre-1914 would disappear in a blaze of nationalist gunfire, had been shattered. Prewar problems did not disappear; they reemerged from the ashes of trench war more destructive and intractable than before, providing fertile soil for extremism of the Left and the Right: Bolshevism and Fascism. Tresca devoted his life to the fight against both new enemies of freedom and human dignity with a fierce resolve equaled by very few.

Keywords

Europe Assure Gravel Trench Defend 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Felix Gilbert and David Clay Large, The End of the European Era: 1890 to the Presen?, 5th ed. ( New York: W.W. Norton, 2002 ), 112.Google Scholar
  2. 16.
    Quoted in Angelo Tasca, Nascita e avvento del fascism? (Bari: Laterza, 1965), vol. 1, 82.Google Scholar
  3. 22.
    Gaetano Salvemini, “Mussolini’s American Empire in the United States;” in Frances Keene, ed., Neither Liberty Nor Bread: The Meaning and Tragedy of Fascis? ( New York: Harper, 1940 ), 336–349.Google Scholar
  4. 23.
    Gaetano Salvemini, Italian Fascist Activities in the United State?, edited by Philip V. Cannistraro ( New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1977 ), 4Google Scholar
  5. John P. Diggins, Mussolini and Fascism: The View from Americ? ( Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972 ), 78–81Google Scholar
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  9. 25.
    For general accounts of Italian American Fascism, see ibid., 78–110; Salvemini, Italian Fascist Activities in the United State?; Philip V. Cannistraro, Blackshirts in Little Italy: Italian Americans and Fascism, 1921–192? ( West Lafayette, IN: Bordighera, 1999 )Google Scholar
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  11. 30.
    Cannistraro, Blackshirts in Little Ital?, 8–35; Alan Cassels, “Fascism for Export: Italy and the United States in the Twenties;” American Historical Revie? 69, 3 (April 1964): 707–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 35.
    Report from the segreteria generate dei Fasci all’Estero (cited hereafter as SGFR) to Ministero degli Affari Esteri [n.d., received July 29, 1923]; also Ambassador Caetani to Mussolini, January 28, 1923, in ACS, MCP, b. 163, f. 18, sf. 71–71A. Also Salvemini, Italian Fascist Activities in the United State?, 11–14; Ruperto, “Italian Fascism in America—II;” Il Mond? (July 1940); Cannistraro, Blackshirts in Little Ital?, 8–18.Google Scholar
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    Salvemini, Italian Fascist Activities in the United State?, 145–148; and especially Gaetano Salvemini and George La Piana, What To Do With Ital? (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1943 ), 80–99.Google Scholar
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  17. Alexander De Conde, Half Bitter, Half Sweet: An Excursion into Italian-American Histor? (New York: Schribner’s & Sons, 1971), 158, 174, 179; Higham, Strangers in the Lan?, 177–178, 234–263, 309–310, 313–319Google Scholar
  18. Monte S. Finkelstein, “The Johnson Act, Mussolini and Fascist Emigration Policy: 1921–1930,” Journal of American Ethnic Histor? 8, 1 (fall 1988 ): 774–775Google Scholar
  19. Constantine Pannunzio, “Italian Americans, Fascism and the War,” Yale Revie? 31 (summer 1942): 774–775Google Scholar
  20. E. Ruperto (pseudonym of Giorgio La Piana), “Italian Fascism in America,” Il Mond?, February 1940Google Scholar
  21. Max Ascoli, “On the Italian Americans;” Common Groun? 3, 1 (autumn 1942): 46; Diggins, Mussolini and Fascis? passim.Google Scholar

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© Nunzio Pernicone 2005

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  • Nunzio Pernicone

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