Contemporary scholarship on political violence and civil wars in Africa has focused either on the colonial or the postcolonial periods. Very little exists on precolonial histories. Consequently, the political violence in the Sudan, for instance, is often conceptualized in essentially ethnic and religious terms. This inadequate perspective has led many policy makers and scholars to propose liberal democracy and ethnic or regional arrangements as a solution to the crisis of citizenship in postcolonial Africa.
KeywordsEthnic Identity Racial Identity Liberal Democracy Political Violence Colonial Period
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