For over four decades, armed conflicts have been raging in the Sudan, with tragic consequences for social, economic, and political development. In contemporary times, the Sudan constitutes a major theater of political conflicts and civil wars. Political conflicts and civil wars are threatening to dismantle the postcolonial state in the Sudan. The consequences of these conflicts have been harmful to the country’s growth, stability, and security.
KeywordsEgypt Nigeria Nial Sudan
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- 1.The government backed militia, known as Janjaweed, engaged in what United Nations officials described “as ethnic cleansing of the African ethnic groups of Darfur.” Men have been summarily executed, women have been raped, and more than 100,000 have been forced into exile to neighboring countries, and more than 30,000 have been killed. For more details see Office of UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for the Sudan (2004) “A Briefing Paper on the Darfur Crisis: Ethnic Cleansing,” March 25.Google Scholar
- 11.Some of the main works in this area are written by Austen, “From the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean”; see also Eltis and Richardson, “West Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade,” pp. 16–35; and Eltis, “The British Contribution,” pp. 211–229; Cooper, Plantation Slavery; and Lovejoy, The Ideology of Slavery in Africa; Miers and Roberts, The End of Slavery in Africa; John Ralph Willis, ed. (1985) Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa, London: Frank Cass; see also Alpers, Ivory and Slaves; Klein, The Middle Passage;Sikainga, Slaves into Workers.Google Scholar