The Blows: The FAR Alone in a Cruel World

  • Hal Klepak
Part of the Studies of the Americas book series (STAM)


As we have seen, in the summer of 1990 members of the armed forces of Cuba received, like other Cubans, the news that a “special period in time of peace” had been declared and they were to be required to make special sacrifices in order to save the Revolution and the nation.1 Rare indeed was the Cuban who would escape the consequences of this declaration by the “Comandante en Jefe,” a call for renewed efforts far beyond those of the past.


Armed Force Special Period Security Force Coast Guard Drug Enforcement Agency 
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  1. 5.
    See, e.g., Susan Kaufmann Purcell, “Cuba’s Cloudy Future,” Foreign Affairs, summer 1990, pp. 113–130.Google Scholar
  2. 7.
    See Richard Millett, “Cuba’s Armed Forces: from Triumph to Survival,” Cuba Briefing Paper Series No. 4, September 1993, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  3. 10.
    This is well dealt with in the series of chapters in Rafael Hernández, La Otra guerra, Havana, Ciencias Sociales, 1999.Google Scholar
  4. 11.
    This is discussed in Jaime Suchlicki (Ed.), The Cuban Military under Castro, Miami, University of Miami, 1989, pp. 70–79.Google Scholar
  5. 14.
    Rafael Hernández, “El Hemisferio y Cuba: una postdata crepuscular a la cumbre de las Américas,” Cuadernos de Nuestra America, XII, 24, July–December 1995, pp. 71–80, p. 79.Google Scholar
  6. 19.
    H. Michael Erisman, Cuba’s Foreign Relations in a Post-Soviet World, Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 2000, pp. 79–104.Google Scholar
  7. 20.
    For interesting comparisons see Arnoldo Brenes and Kevin Casas, Soldiers as Businessmen: The Economic Activities of Central American Militaries, San José, Arias Foundation, 1998.Google Scholar
  8. 28.
    Marc Frank, “Former U.S. Drug Tsar Meets Castro in Cuba,” Havana, Reuters, March 3, 2002.Google Scholar
  9. 30.
    Charles Heyman (Ed.), Jane’s World Armies, Coulsdon (UK), 2001, p. 190.Google Scholar

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© Hal Klepak 2005

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  • Hal Klepak

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