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British Attitudes Toward Hong Kong in the Nineteenth Century

  • Gillian Bickley

Abstract

By the end of the nineteenth century, the various groups that made up the British community had established patterns for their lives in Hong Kong. Benefiting from the systems put in place by previous residents, they were able to follow their different avocations somewhat more smoothly. Needing to expend less effort to create the context within which their particular activities could take place, they could carry them out more efficiently and beneficially. Additionally, benefiting from what had been learnt by their predecessors, they had access to a better understanding of the local situation. Administrative officials, naval and military officers and members of other ranks, teachers, businessmen, missionaries, and others found their place in this recently acquired colony of the British Empire. As the British community formed and grew, its members were also in search of the best ways to administer, serve, teach, profit, evangelize, or simply live with each other and people of other nationalities in Hong Kong.

Keywords

Chinese Mainland Chinese Language Pastoral Care Legislative Council Missionary Society 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    See Gillian Bickley, “The Establishment of the Colonial Bishops Fund and its Impact on the Establishment of a Bishop’s See of Victoria, Hong Kong, China, and Saint Paul’s Missionary College, Hong Kong, in association with the See,” paper presented at the Third International Symposium on the History of Christianity in Modern China, November 21–22, 2003, Hong Kong Baptist University, jointly organized by Hong Kong Baptist University and Alliance Bible Seminary.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    Writer’s notes from Reverend Carl Smith, unpublished manuscript transcription, editorial, The Friend of China.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    Copy, Albert Smith, Letter, to the Bishop of Victoria, dated, Egyptian Hall[,] Piccadilly[, London,] January 24, 1859, CCH/O 3b/54[?], Church Missionary Society Archives, Birmingham University Library, Birmingham, U.K. See also, copy in, “Victoria (Hong Kong) 1850–1859,” RHL USPG D6a, the Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House (formerly known as Rhodes House Library), Oxford, U.K. The present transcript represents an amalgamation of the two versions. Both have lacunae, fortunately in different places. There may be some small differences in punctuation and capitalization, etc., which have been reconciled here.Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    See Bishop John Shaw Burdon, Sermon given at his Installation at Saint John’s Cathedral, Hong Kong, Sunday, December 13, 1874, China Mail, December 14, 1874, as transcribed in Bishops’ Scrapbooks, HKMS 94, D & S no. 1/4, p. 4, Diocesan Archives, Public Records Office, Hong Kong. Also quoted in, Gillian Bickley, “Mission China,” Typescript, Gillian Bickley Collection, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. “Mission China” also quotes and documents the correspondence Bishop Burdon engaged in to ascertain this point, putting it in context.Google Scholar
  5. 9.
    See Gillian Bickley, ed., The Development of Education in Hong Kong 1841–1897: As Revealed by the Early Education Reports of the Hong Kong Government 1848–1896 (Hong Kong: Proverse Hong Kong, 2002), passim. See also G. B. Endacott, “The Growth of a Public Education System of Education, 1841–1865,” in A History of Hong Kong, first published 1958, reissued in Oxford in Asia paperbacks (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1964, second edn., 1973), pp. 132–43, esp. pp. 135–36.Google Scholar
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    See Carl Smith, “Schools and Scholars: English Language Education in the China Mission in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century and Its Results” (M.A. thesis, Union Theological Seminary, 1962), passim.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    See e.g., Gillian Bickley, “Gamblers and Informers,” in Gillian Bickley, ed., A Magistrate’s Court in Nineteenth Century Hong Kong: Court in Time (Hong Kong: Proverse Hong Kong, 2005), p. 334.Google Scholar
  8. 15.
    Frank Welsh, A History of Hong Kong (London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993), p. 253.Google Scholar
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    Colin Crisswell and Mike Watson, The Royal Hong Kong Police, 1841–1945 (Hong Kong: Macmillan Publishers (H.K.), 1982), p. 60.Google Scholar
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    See e.g., Endacott, A History of Hong Kong, pp. 58, 71; Crisswell and Watson, The Royal Hong Kong Police, 1841–1945, p. 30; Christopher Munn, “The Criminal Trial under Early Colonial Rule,” in Tak-Wing Ngo, ed., Hong Kong’s History: State and Society under Colonial Rule (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 52–54.Google Scholar
  11. 21.
    See e.g., Gillian Bickley, “Magistrate Frederick Stewart,” in Bickley, ed., A Magistrate’s Court in Nineteenth Century Hong Kong, pp. 55–73.Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    For example, Christopher Munn made this point at a seminar he gave at the Centre for Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong. Elsewhere, but without making the point equally explicitly, Munn refers to the fact that Caine . . . though born in Ireland, had . . . “scarcely ever touched European soil” and was, in his philosophy of government, an “Oriental.” (“ ‘An Anglo-Chino Conspiracy in Crime’: The Caldwell Scandal, 1857–1861,” unpublished draft paper delivered at a conference held at the University of Hong Kong, p. 3.)Google Scholar
  13. 24.
    Gillian Bickley, “Soldiers,” in Bickley, ed., A Magistrate’s Court in Nineteenth Century Hong Kong, pp. 199–214.Google Scholar
  14. 25.
    E. J. Eitel, Europe in China (Kelly & Walsh, and Luzac & Co., 1895; reprint, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 134.Google Scholar
  15. 26.
    Ibid., p. 171. Frank Welsh, ignoring Eitel’s correction of what he perceives as an obvious mistake in transcription, gives a larger number, but the overall picture is not changed (A History of Hong Kong, p. 137).Google Scholar
  16. 35.
    Reproduced in, Alan Harfield, British and Indian Armies on the China Coast, 1785–1985 (London: A. & J. Partnership, 1990), p. 100.Google Scholar
  17. 36.
    Henry James Lethbridge, “Introduction,” in Albert Smith, ed., To China and Back: Being a Diary Kept Out and Home (1859; reprint, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1974), p. xiii.Google Scholar
  18. 37.
    See Gillian Bickley, “The Student-interpreters’ Scheme and the Chinese Teacher’s Allowance: Translator Education in Nineteenthcentury Hong Kong,” in Chan Sin-wai, ed., Translation in Hong Kong: Past, Present and Future (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2001), pp. 9–19.Google Scholar
  19. 38.
    See Gillian Bickley, The Golden Needle: The Biography of Frederick Stewart (1836–1889) (Hong Kong: David C. Lam Institute for EastWest Studies, Hong Kong Baptist University, 1997), pp. 107–08.Google Scholar
  20. 39.
    See Gillian Bickley, “ ‘Beakers, Bell jars, and Flasks’: The Introduction of Chemistry into the Hong Kong School Curriculum: Two Governors as Catalysts of Educational Change,” Typescript, Gillian Bickley Collection, Hong Kong Baptist University.Google Scholar
  21. 43.
    Gillian Bickley, “Social Pressures on Language in Education in Nineteenth Century Hong Kong and Applications for Understanding the Social Pressures on Language in Education in Hong Kong Today,” in Hong Kong Institute of Language in Education, ed., Issues Relating to the Planning, Managing and Implementation of Language Teaching and Training Programmes in the 90’s (Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government Education Department, December 1992), pp. 54–80.Google Scholar
  22. 46.
    Bickley, ed., The Development of Education in Hong Kong 1841–1897, p. 566, n. 2.Google Scholar
  23. 47.
    Education Department, Hong Kong, “Report on Education for the Year 1895” (May 21, 1896), in Bickley, ed., The Development of Education in Hong Kong 1841–1897, pp. 421–22, para. 15.Google Scholar
  24. 51.
    Irene Cheng, Clara Ho Tung: A Hong Kong Lady, Her Family and Her Times (Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1976).Google Scholar
  25. 52.
    See e.g., Gillian Bickley, “The Domestic Scene,” in Bickley, ed., A Magistrate’s Court in Nineteenth Century Hong Kong, pp. 237–39, 243–53.Google Scholar
  26. 53.
    G. H. Choa, The Life and Times of Sir Kai Ho Kai: A Prominent Figure in Nineteenth-Century Hong Kong (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1981), pp. 9, 17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Cindy Yik-yi Chu 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gillian Bickley

There are no affiliations available

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