The purpose of this chapter is to provide a broad outline of Cobden, Mitrany, and Ohmae’s varied and colorful lives as they dedicated them to international liberalism, world peace, and the promotion of economic development. An additional objective is to present a general picture of their historical and intellectual contexts.


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  1. 1.
    E. L. Woodward, The Age of Reform, 1815–1870 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1938).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cobden had already passed away by 1870. However, he was a strong advocate of universal education and was, throughout his life involved in debates regarding educational reform. See, e.g., Peter Nelson Farrar, “Richard Cobden, Educationist, Economist and Statesman” (University of Sheffield: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 1987).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Richard Cobden, “Russia” (1836), in Richard Cobden, The Political Writings of Richard Cobden, Vol. I, of two volumes, fourth edition (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1903 [first published 18671), p. 122.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
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  5. 7.
    H. Donaldson Jordan, “The Case of Richard Cobden,” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society (Vol. 83, 1971), p. 45. See also Johan Norberg, Den Svenska Liberalismens Historia (Stockholm: Timbro, 1998), esp. p. 123, and Jaan Pennar, “Richard Cobden and Cordell Hull: A Comparative Study of the Commercial Policies of Nineteenth Century England and Contemporary United States” (Princeton University: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 1953). For Cobden’s wider impact, see Camille Palma Castorina, “Richard Cobden and the Intellectual Development and Influence of the Manchester School of Economics” (Victoria University of Manchester: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 1976). For some good biographies of Cobden, see, e.g., John Morley, TheLife ofRichard Cobden, fourteenth edition (London: T. Fisher Unwin Ltd., 1920 [first published 1879 in two volumes]); Nicholas C. Edsall, RichardCobden,IndependentRadical (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986); Wendy Hinde, RichardCobden:A VictorianOutsider (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987); and Hobson, Cobden:TheInternationalMan. Hobson makes some interpretations of Cobden in his book, but to a large extent it consists of letters written by Cobden, many of them previously not published. See also Lionel James Carter, “The Development of Cobden’s Thought on International Relations, Particularly with Reference to his Role in the Mid-nineteenth Century Peace Movement” (Sidney Sussex College: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 1970), and Farrar, “Cobden, Educationist, Economist and Statesman.”Google Scholar
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    See, e.g., Richard Cobden, London, 1 May 1844, speech on free trade, in Richard Cobden, Speeches on Questions ofPublic Policy, Vol. 1, of two volumes, Eds. John Bright and James E. Thorold Rogers (London: Macmillan and Co., 1870), p. 180.Google Scholar
  7. 10.
    John Vincent, TheFormation of theBritishLiberalParty, 1857–1868 (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972 [first published 1966]), p. 72.Google Scholar
  8. 11.
    John McGilchrist, RichardCobden,TheApostle ofFreeTrade,HisPoliticalCareer andPublicServices.ABiography (London: Lockwood and Co., 1865), p. 255.Google Scholar
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    See, e.g., Andrew Marrison (ed.), Free Trade and Its Reception 1815–1960, Volume I, Freedom and Trade (London: Routledge, 1998).Google Scholar
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    Jordan, “Case of Cobden,” p. 34, and Anthony Howe, FreeTrade andLiberalEngland, 1846–1946 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), p. vii.Google Scholar
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    Guido de Ruggiero, The History ofEuropean Liberalism, Trans. R. G. Collingwood (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1927), p. 93.Google Scholar
  12. 17.
    See, e.g., A. J. R Groom, “The Advent of International Institutions,” in Paul Taylor and A. J. R. Groom (eds.), International Organisation: A Conceptual Approach (London: Frances Pinter, 1978), pp. 19–24.Google Scholar
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  14. 19.
    John Keegan, TheFirst World War (New York, NY: Vintage Books, 2000 [first published 1998]), p. 17.Google Scholar
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    For an elaboration, see Peter Wilson, The International Theory ofLeonard Woolf.• A Study in Twentieth-Century Idealism (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp. 57–60.Google Scholar
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    See, e.g., Helen Merrell Lynd, England in the Eighteen-eighties: Toward a Social Basis for Freedom (New York, NY Oxford University Press, 1945).Google Scholar
  17. 22.
    Ibid., p. 155.Google Scholar
  18. 23.
    David Mitrany, A Working Peace System: An Argument for the Functional Development of International Organization, fourth edition (London: National Peace Council, 1946 [first published 1943]), p. 26.Google Scholar
  19. 24.
    See, e.g., Mauricio Rojas, The Rise and Fall of the Swedish Model, Trans. Roger Tanner (London: The Social Market Foundation, 1998 [first published in Swedish byTimbro 1996]), p. 154.Google Scholar
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    David Mitrany, The Functional Theory of Politics (London: Martin Robertson, 1975), p. 16.Google Scholar
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  22. 27.
    Ibid., p. 5.Google Scholar
  23. 28.
    Ibid., pp. 5–6.Google Scholar
  24. 29.
    David Mitrany, The Progress ofInternational Government (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1933).Google Scholar
  25. 30.
    Cornelia Navari, “David Mitrany and International Functionalism,” in David Long and Peter Wilson (eds.), Thinkers of the Twenty YearsCrisis: Inter-war Idealism Reassessed (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 216, and Dorothy Anderson, “David Mitrany (1888–1975): An Appreciation of His Life and Work,” Review oflnternational Studies (Vol. 24, No. 4, 1998), p. 581.Google Scholar
  26. 43.
    Paul Taylor, “Introduction,” in Mitrany, Functional Theory, p. x. For good and comprehensive summaries of Mitrany’s thought, see, e.g., Paul Taylor,“Functionalism: The Theory of David Mitrany,” in Taylor and Groom, International Organisation, pp. 236–52; and David Long and Lucian M. Ashworth, “Working for Peace: The Functional Approach, Functionalism and Beyond,” in Lucian M. Ashworth and David Long (eds.), New Perspectives on International Functionalism (London: Macmillan Press, 1999), pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  27. 45.
    Kenichi Ohmae, in Ann Gregory and Sam Waite (eds.), Fact and Friction: Kenichi Ohmae on U.S.-Japan Relations (Tokyo: The Japan Times, 1990), p. 33.Google Scholar
  28. 46.
    Interview with Kenichi Ohmae in Mariam Naficy, The Fast Track: The Insiders Guide to Winning Jobs in Management Consulting, Investment Banking, and Securities Trading (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 1997), p. 16.Google Scholar
  29. 47.
    See, e.g., John Micldethwait and Adrian Wooldridge, The Witch Doctors: What the Management Gurus are Saying, Why It Matters and How to Make Sense ofIt (London: Mandarin Paperbacks, 1997), pp. 57 and 274–6.Google Scholar
  30. 48.
    See and Google Scholar
  31. 49.
    Kenichi Ohmae, The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies (London: HarperCollins, 1995), p. 213. For additional information about The Reform of Heisei, see http://www.infosnow.nejp/ishin/index.html. Google Scholar
  32. 50.
    The Economist, “Global Citizen Ken,” 22 October 1994, p. 99.Google Scholar
  33. 51.
    See 14.html Google Scholar
  34. 52.
    Kenichi Ohmae, The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Global Marketplace (London: HarperCollins, 1990), p. 223. 53. Prabhu Guptara, “Drawing a Map of the New World,” Book Review, Financial Times, 7 September 2000.Google Scholar
  35. 54.
    Richard Donkin, “Japan’s Next Hope Is Still in the Garage: Interview Kenichi Ohmae: Richard Donkin on the Entrepreneur Looking to a Younger Generation to Help in His Country’s Revival,” Financial Times, 20 July 1999.Google Scholar

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© Per A. Hammarlund 2005

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