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Group Representation and Deliberative Liberalism

  • Katherine Smits

Abstract

The interest pluralism model explored in chapter three is reflected in what remained until the 1990s the dominant paradigm for understanding democratic politics in Western democracies. As Dahl described the system of polyarchy, the competition between interests drove and contained the political process. Those with shared interests organized with the rational aim of capturing the support of legislators, who in turn competed for the support of organized interest groups. Those with political claims that could not be formulated in terms of competing interests were marginalized from the political process. As a result, identity claims that originally concerned recognition were for the most part expressed and interpreted in terms of the demands of interest.

Keywords

Identity Group Identity Politics Deliberative Democracy Democratic Politics Participatory Democracy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
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  2. 2.
    For a critique of the paradigm (to which I will later return) see Lynn M. Sanders, “Against Deliberation,” Political Theory 25, 3 (June 1997): 347–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    For example, Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson, Democracy and Disagreement (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1996), 1–5.Google Scholar
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    These criticisms are detailed by Nancy Rosenblum in Membership and Morals: The Personal Uses of Pluralism in America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), 319–39. See also K. Anthony Appiah, “Identity, Authenticity, Survival: Multicultural Societies and Social Reproduction,” in Multiculturalism, ed. Gutmann, 149–63.Google Scholar
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    In an early statement, Joshua Cohen argued that deliberative outcomes should be settled only by reference to the reasons offered by participants. See Cohen, “Deliberation and Democratic Legitimacy,” in The Good Polity: Normative Analysis of the State, ed. Alan Hamlin and Philip Pettit (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989), 23. For an argument that reasons need to be acceptable to a hypothetical third party, seeGoogle Scholar
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    Young argues for “communicative,” rather than “deliberative” democracy, on the grounds that the former allows more latitude in the forms of speech recognized. Communicating ideas becomes crucial, rather than arguing them. See Young, “Communication and the Other: Beyond Deliberative Democracy,” in Seyla Benhabib, ed., Democracy and Difference: Changing Boundaries of the Political (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), 122–5.Google Scholar
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  26. 49.
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© Katherine Smits 2005

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  • Katherine Smits

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