Gender Equity as a Revolutionary Strategy

Coeducation in Russian and Soviet Schools
  • E. Thomas Ewing

Abstract

In 1913, Moscow schoolteacher E. Kirpichnikova declared that her coeducational school “does not have the goal of eliminating the difference between the sexes, but instead seeks only to assist the natural development of the positive features of young people of both sexes.” Drawing upon her nearly 20 year effort to increase girls’ access to the schools, Kirpichnikova described how male and female pupils studied and played together. Yet, distinct patterns of behavior were still evident. During recess, boys ran around the courtyard while girls talked in small groups. In class, girls “conscientiously and punctually completed all assignments” yet boys “evaded subjects in which they had no interest.” Recognizing these persistent differences, Kirpichnikova concluded that by allowing pupils to engage in “simple and comradely interactions,” coeducation taught boys and girls to see in each other “not only a man or a woman, but also a human being (ne tol’ko muzhchinu ili zhenshchinu, no i cheloveka)” (Kirpichnikova 1914, pp. 75–88).

Keywords

Depression Assimilation Defend Verse Reformer 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Association for University Women (AAUW). 1992. How Schools Shortchange Girls. A Study of Major Findings on Girls and Education. Washington: AAUW Educational Foundation.Google Scholar
  2. —. 1998. Gender Gaps. Where Schools Still Fail Our Children. Washington: AAUW Educational Foundation.Google Scholar
  3. —. 2001. Beyond the “Gender Wars.” A Conversation about Girls, Boys, and Education. Washington: AAUW Educational Foundation.Google Scholar
  4. Andreeva, E. P., N. A. Rut, and N. V. Starikov, eds. 1973. Pedagogicheskaia bibliografiia vols. 2–3 Moscow: Prosveshchenie.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, P. 2001. “Teaching Boys-and Girls-Another Notion of Jihad.” Washington Post October 2.Google Scholar
  6. Bearak, B. 2000. “Afghanistan’s Girls Fight to Read and Write.” The New York Times March 9.Google Scholar
  7. Bil’shai, V. 1956. Reshenie zhenskogo voprosa v SSSR. Moscow: Prosveshchenie.Google Scholar
  8. Chirkov, P. M. 1978. Reshenie zhenskogo voprosa v SSSR (1917–1937gg.) Moscow: Prosveshchenie.Google Scholar
  9. Clark, K. 2000. “Aghanistan’s Bleak Education Record.” BBC News April 27.Google Scholar
  10. Clements, B. E. 1994. Daughters of Revolution. A History of Women in the U.S.S.R. Arlington Heights: Harlan Davidson.Google Scholar
  11. Constable, P. 2002. “Afghan Pupils Thrilled to Go Back to School.” Washington Post March 4.Google Scholar
  12. —. 2003. “Attacks Beset Afghan Girls’ Schools.” Washington Post September 8.Google Scholar
  13. Coursen-Neff, Z. and J. Sifton. 2003. “Falling Back to Taliban Ways with Women.” International Herald Tribune January 21.Google Scholar
  14. “Desiat’ let sovmestnogo obucheniia.” 1928. Uchitel’skaia gazeta June 22.Google Scholar
  15. Dodge, N. T. 1966. Women in the Soviet Economy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Dominus, S. 2002. “Shabana is Late for School.” New York Times Magazine September 29.Google Scholar
  17. Dunstan, J. 1997a. “Coeducation and Revolution: Responses to Mixed Schooling in Early Twentieth Century Russia.” History of Education vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 383–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. —. 1997b. Soviet Schooling in the Second World War. Birmingham: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Edmondson, L. 1984. Feminism in Russia, 1900–1917. Stanford: Stanford Univetsity Press.Google Scholar
  20. Eklof, B. 1986. Russian Peasant Schools. Officialdom, Village Culture, and Popular Pedagogy, 1861–1914. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. Ewing, E. T. 1997. “Silences and Strategies: Soviet Women Teachers and Stalinist Culture in the 1930s.” East/West Education vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 24–54.Google Scholar
  22. —. 2002a. The Teachers of Stalinism. Policy, Practice, and Power in Soviet Schools of the 1930s. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. —. 2002b. “Asserting the ‘Particular Needs’ of Boys and Girls: Single-Sex Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943–1954.” Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
  24. —. 2002c. “Personal Acts with Public Meanings: Suicide by Soviet Women Teachers in the Stalin Era.” Gender & History vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 117–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. —. 2002d. “Schooling Against Patriarchy in the ‘Non-Russian’ Regions: Coeducation in Soviet Schools, 1917 to 1943.” Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
  26. —. 2005. “A Stalinist Celebrity Teacher: Gender, Professional, and Political Identities in Soviet Culture of the 1930s.” Journal of Women’s History vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 92–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fitzpatrick, S. 1994. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gorchakov, A. and M. Komarov. 1927. “Sovmestnoe obuchenie.” Shkola i zhizn’ no. 10, pp. 43–47.Google Scholar
  29. Harding, L. 2002. “Afghan Fundamentalists Raid Girls’ Schools.” Guardian November 1.Google Scholar
  30. Heward, C. 1999. “Introduction: The New Discourses of Gender, Education, and Development.” In Gender, Education, and Development. Beyond Access to Empowerment. Heward and S. Bunwaree, eds. London: Zed Books, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  31. Holmes, L. 1991. The Kremlin and the Schoolhouse. Reforming Education in Soviet Russia, 1917–1931. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Johanson, C. 1987. Women’s Struggle for Higher Education in Russia 1855–1900. Montreal: McGill University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kirpichnikova, E. A. 1914. “Iz’ opyta sovmestnoi shkoly.” In Sovmestnoe obrazovanie. N. M. Sokolov and G. G. Tumin, eds. St. Petersburg: Novoe Vremia, pp. 75–88.Google Scholar
  34. Krupskaia, N. K. 1938. Zhenshchina strany sovetov-ravnopravnyi grazhdanin. Moscow: Partizdat.Google Scholar
  35. Kul’turnoe stroitel’stvo v SSSR. 1940. Moscow: Gozisdat.Google Scholar
  36. Lacayo, R. 2001. “About Face: An Inside Look at How Women Fared Under Taliban Oppression and What the Future Holds for Them Now.” Time December 3.Google Scholar
  37. Lapidus, G. W. 1976. “Socialism and Modernity: Education, Industrialization and Social Change in the U.S.S.R.” In The Dynamics of Soviet Politics. P. Cocks et al., eds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 195–220.Google Scholar
  38. —. 1977. “Sexual Equality in Soviet Policy: A Developmental Perspective.” In Women in Russia D. Atkinson, A. Dallin, and Lapidus, eds. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. —. 1978a. Women in Soviet Society. Equality, Development and Social Change. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  40. —. 1978b. “Educational Strategies and Cultural Revolution: The Politics of Soviet Development.” In Cultural Revolution in Russia. S. Fitzpatrick, ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 78–104.Google Scholar
  41. Lenin, V. I. 1945. “The Revolution and Women.” In Collected Works vol. 23. New York: Progress Publishers, pp. 300–301.Google Scholar
  42. Mann, J. 2001. “Helping Women is Essential to Rebuilding Afghanistan.” Washington Post November 23.Google Scholar
  43. Mazurkewich, K. 2000. “Bringing Hope-and Homework-to the Girls.” Time May 29.Google Scholar
  44. Narodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR. Obshcheobrazovatel’naia shkola. Sbornik dokumentov 1917–1973gg. 1973. Moscow: Pedagogika.Google Scholar
  45. Orenstein, P. 1994 SchoolGirls. Young Women, Self-Esteem, and the Confidence Gap. New York: 1994.Google Scholar
  46. Pourzand, N. 1999. “The Problematic of Female Education, Ethnicity, and National Identity in Afghanistan (1920–1999).” Social Analysis vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 78–81.Google Scholar
  47. Rohde, R. 2002. “Attacks on Schools for Girls Hint at Lingering Split in Afghanistan.” The New York Times October 31.Google Scholar
  48. Rosenberg, E. 2002. “Rescuing Women and Children.” The Journal of American History vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 456–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosenberg, W. G. 1974. Liberals in the Russian Revolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Ruane, C. 1994. Gender, Class, and the Professionalization of Russian City Teachers, 1860–1914. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  51. Sadker, M. and D. Sadker. 1994. Failing at Fairness. How Our Schools Shortchange Girls. New York: Scribner’s.Google Scholar
  52. Savich, A. 1939. “Trudnye voprosy sovmestnogo vospitaniia i obucheniia v shkole.” Sredniaia shkola no. 5, pp. 23–24.Google Scholar
  53. Scott, J. W. 1988. “Deconstructing Equality-versus-Difference: Or, the Uses of Poststructuralist Theory for Feminism.” Feminist Studies vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sokolov, N. M. and G. G. Tumin. 1914. “Predislovie.” In Sovmestnoe obrazovanie p. v.Google Scholar
  55. Sommers, C. H. 2000. The War Against Boys. How Misguided Feminism is Harming Our Young Men. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  56. Sperling, G. 2002. “Educate Them All.” Washington Post April 20.Google Scholar
  57. Stites, R. 1978. Women’s Liberation Movement in Russia. Feminism, Nihilism, and Bolshevism Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Timofeev, M. 1945. “Sovmestnoe i razdel’noe obuchenie.” Sovetskaia pedagogika no. 4, pp. 6–13.Google Scholar
  59. Trotsky, L. 1937. The Revolution Betrayed. What is the Soviet Union and Where is it Going? New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  60. Tsuzmer, M. 1943. “O razdel’nom obuchenii.” Uchitel’skaiagazeta August 11.Google Scholar
  61. Tucker, R. 1990. Stalin in Power. The Revolution from Above, 1928–1941. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  62. Tyack, D. and E. Hansot. 1992. Learning Together. A History of Coeducation. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  63. UNESCO. 2002. Education for All. Is the World on Track? Paris: UNESCO publications.Google Scholar
  64. U.S. Department of State. 2001. Report on the Taliban’s War Against Women November 17.Google Scholar
  65. “Vseobshchee obiazatel’noe obuchenie.” 1937. Rabotnitsa no. 25.Google Scholar
  66. Zhenshchina v SSSR Statisticheskii sbornik. 1936. Moscow: Gosplan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© E. Thomas Ewing 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Thomas Ewing

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations