To Be a Man: Changing Constructions of Manhood in Drum Magazine, 1951–1965

  • Lindsay Clowes


Manhood, as represented by the early Drum, was achieved through the social recognition of the male roles of husband and father, brother and uncle, son, grandson, and grandfather. In portraying a “man,” the early Drum acknowledged the complex and mutually supportive relationships centering on family members inside and outside the home, and provided public recognition of a social “manhood” rooted in a wide variety of domestic obligations inherent in these roles. Over the course of the 1950s this began to change such by the 1960s it was a man’s relationships with his colleagues and bosses that were privileged in the pages of the magazine. At the same time, Drum recognized fewer familial commitments to the point that, by the middle of the 1960s a man was represented as having little or no domestic obligations beyond that of financial provider. By the middle of the 1960s, Drum was producing images of males that established manhood primarily through relationships with apparently independent and autonomous interactions with non-kin men outside the home, and through sexual relations with women (Clowes 2002).


South African Institute Nuclear Household Black Consumer Black Father White Father 
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© Lahoucine Ouzgane and Robert Morrell 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lindsay Clowes

There are no affiliations available

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