Advertisement

Socio-Religious Movements and the Transformation of “Common Sense” into a Politics of “Common Good”

  • Mark LeVine
  • Armando Salvatore
Part of the Culture and Religion in International Relations book series (CRIR)

Abstract

This chapter explores the philosophical and epistemological foundations of the variety of notions of the “public” utilized—explicitly and implicitly—by socio-religious movements to define and justify their ideologies and actions to achieve social power. Our hypothesis is that contemporary Muslim socio-religious movements attempt to formulate and implement discourses of common good that aspire to legitimate specific forms of political community, based on distinctive methods of public reasoning. These discourses are often in tension with modern liberal conceptions of the public sphere; specifically, they remain unbounded by the strictures of liberal norms of publicness premised on atomistic views of the social agent and contractually based notions of trust, by a strict interpretation of the dichotomy between private and public spheres, and by the ultimate basing of public reason on private interest. What socio-religious discourses and movements primarily base their public reason on is a practical reason sanctified by religious tradition, however variably interpreted. Such a perspective provides these discourses with a level of fluidity and adaptability that accounts in large measure for their success in mobilizing large numbers of people to their cause.

Keywords

Civil Society Common Sense Public Sphere Common Good Religious Tradition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asad, Talal. 1993. Genealogies ofReligion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Asad, Talal. 2003. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ashraf, Ahmad. 1995. “From the White Revolution to the Islamic Revolution.” In Iran After the Revolution: Crisis of an Islamic State, ed. Saeed Rahnema and Sohrab Behdad, New York: I.B. Tauris, 21–44.Google Scholar
  4. Berman, Eli. 2003. Hamas, Taliban and the Jewish Underground: An Economist’s View of Radical Religious Militias, Working Paper, National Bureau of Economic Research.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernauer, James. 1999. “Cry of Spirit.” Foreword to Michel Foucault, Religion and Culture: Michel Foucault, ed. Jeremy Carrette, New York: Routledge, xi–xx.Google Scholar
  6. Bernauer, James, and Michael Mahon. 1994. “The Ethics of Michel Foucault.” In The Cambridge Companion to Foucault, ed. Gary Gutting, New York: Cambridge University Press, 141–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Broyelle, Claudie, and Jacques Broyelle. 1979. “A’ quoi rêvent les philosophes?” Le Matin, March 24: 13.Google Scholar
  8. Calhoun, Craig. 1993. “Habitus, Field and Capital: The Question of Historical Specificity.” In Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives, ed. Craig Calhoun, Edward LiPuma and Moishe Postone, Cambridge: Polity Press, 61–88.Google Scholar
  9. Carrette, Jeremy. 2000. Foucault and Religion: Spiritual Corporality and Political Spirituality. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castells, Manuel. 1996, The Power of Identity. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  11. Connolly, William. 1993. “Beyond Good and Evil: The Ethical Sensibility of Michel Foucault,” Political Theory 21, 3: 365–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crehan, Kate. 2002. Gramsci, Culture and Anthropology. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dabashi, Hamid. 1993. Theology ofDiscontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Deleuze, Gilles, and Pierre-Félix Guattari. 1983 [ 1972 ]. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia I, trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem, and Helen R. Lane, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  15. Deleuze, Gilles. 1987 [1980]. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia II, trans. Brian Massumi, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  16. Eder, Klaus. 1985. Geschichte als Lernprozeß. Zur Pathogenese politischer Modernität in Deutschland. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  17. Eisenstadt, Shmuel N. 1982. “Heterodoxies, Sectarianism and Dynamics of Civilizations,” Diogène 120: 5–26.Google Scholar
  18. Eisenstadt, Shmuel N. 2000. “Fundamentalist Movements in the Framework of Multiple Modernities.” In Between Europe and Islam: Shaping Modernity in a Transcultural Space, ed. Almut Höfert and Armando Salvatore, Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang, 175–96.Google Scholar
  19. Foucault, Michel. 1978a. “Taccuino persiano: L’ esercito, quando la terra trema,” Corriere della Sera, September 28: 1–2.Google Scholar
  20. Foucault, Michel. 1978b. “Teheran: la fede contro lo Scià,” Corriere della Sera, October 8: 11.Google Scholar
  21. Foucault, Michel. 1978c. “Taccuino persiano: Ritorno al profeta?” Corriere della Sera, October 22: 1–2.Google Scholar
  22. Foucault, Michel. 1978d. “Ä quoi rêvent les Iraniens?” Nouvel Observateur, October 16–22: 48–49.Google Scholar
  23. Foucault, Michel. 1978e. “Réponse à une lectrice Iranienne,” Nouvel Observateur, November 13–19: 26–27.Google Scholar
  24. Foucault, Michel. 1978f. “Il mitico capo della rivolta nell’Iran,” Corriere della Sera, November 26: 1–2.Google Scholar
  25. Foucault, Michel. 1979. “L’ esprit d’un monde sans esprit.” Interview. In Iran: la révolution an nom de Dieu, ed. Claire Brière and Pierre Blachet, Paris: Seuil, 227–41.Google Scholar
  26. Foucault, Michel. 1988a. “Truth, Power, Self: An Interview with Michel Foucault.” In Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault, ed. Luther Martin, Huck Gutman, and Patrick Hutton, Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 9–15.Google Scholar
  27. Foucault, Michel. 1988b. Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings, 1977–84, trans. Alan Sheridan et al., New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Foucault, Michel. 1998. Taccuino persiano, Milan: Guerini.Google Scholar
  29. Foucault, Michel. 1999. Religion and Culture: Michel Foucault, ed. Jeremy Carrette, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Fulton, John. 1987. “Religion and Politics in Gramsci: An Introduction.” Sociological Analysis 48, 3: 197–216.Google Scholar
  31. Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks, ed. and trans. Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith, New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Gramsci, Antonio. 1997. La religione come senso comune, ed. Tommaso La Rocca, Milan: EST.Google Scholar
  33. Gramsci, Antonio. 2001. Quaderni del carcere, 4 vols., Rome and Trento: Istituto Gramsci/Einaudi.Google Scholar
  34. Hammami, Rema. 2002. Palestinian NGOs, the Oslo Transition, and the Space ofDevelopment. Paper presented at the workshop on “Socio-Religious Movements and the Transformation of Political Community: Israel, Palestine, & Beyond,” University of California Irvine, Department of History, October 10–12.Google Scholar
  35. Höfert, Almut, and Armando Salvatore. 2000. “Introduction: Beyond the Clash of Civilisations: The Transcultural Politics Between Europe and Islam.” In Between Europe and Islam: Shaping Modernity in a Transcultural Space, ed. Almut Höfert and Armando Salvatore, Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang, 13–35.Google Scholar
  36. Kreidie, Lina. 2002. Hizbullah and the Challenges of Modernism and Secularism. Paper presented at the workshop on “Socio-Religious Movements and the Transformation of Political Community: Israel, Palestine, & Beyond,” University of California Irvine, Department of History, October 10–12.Google Scholar
  37. La Rocca, Tommaso. 1997. “Gramsci sulla religione.” In Antonio Gramsci, La religione come senso comune, ed. with an Introduction by Tommaso La Rocca., Milan: EST.Google Scholar
  38. LeVine, Mark. 2005. Why They Don’t Hate Us: Lifting the Veil on the Axis of Evil. Oxford: Oneworld.Google Scholar
  39. MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1984 [1981]. After Virtue. A Study in Moral Theory. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  40. MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1988. Whose Justice? Which Rationality? London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  41. MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1994. “The Theses on Feuerbach: A Road not Taken.” In Artifacts, Representations, and Social Practice: Essays for Marx Wartofsky, ed. Carol C. Gould and Robert S. Cohen, Amsterdam: Kluwer, 223–34.Google Scholar
  42. Macey, David. 1993. The Lives of Michel Foucault. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  43. Masud, Muhammad Khalid. 2000 [19 95]. Shatibi’s Philosophy of Islamic Law. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust.Google Scholar
  44. Mazzotta, Giuseppe. 1999. The New Map of the World. The Poetic Philosophy of Giambattista Vico. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Miller, James. 1993. The Passion of Michel Foucault. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  46. Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Rahnema, Ali. 1998. An Islamic Utopian: A Political Biography of Ali Shariâti. New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  48. Roy, Sara. 2000. “The Transformation of Islamic NGOs in Palestine.” Middle East Report, 214: 24–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber, and James Piscatori, eds. 1997. Transnational Religion and Fading States. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  50. Said, Edward. 1984. The Word, the Text and the Critic. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  51. Salvatore, Armando. 1997. Islam and the Political Discourse of Modernity. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press.Google Scholar
  52. Said, Edward. 2001. “Mustafa Mahmud: a Paradigm of Public Islamic Entrepreneurship?” In Muslim Traditions and Modern Techniques of Power, vol. 3 of Yearbook of the Sociology of Islam, ed. Armando Salvatore, Hamburg: Lit; New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 213–25.Google Scholar
  53. Saunders, George R. 1998. “The Magic of the South: Popular Religion and Elite Catholicism in Italian Ethnology.” In Italy’s “Southern Question”: Orientalism in One Country, ed. Jane Schneider, New York: Berg, 177–206.Google Scholar
  54. Schneider, Jane. 1998. “Introduction: The Dynamics of Neo-Orientalism in Italy (1848–1995).” In Italy’s “Southern Question”: Orientalism in One Country, ed. Jane Schneider, New York: Berg, 1–23.Google Scholar
  55. Shariati, Ali. 1982. “The Return to the Self.” In Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives, ed. John Donohue and John Esposito, New York: Oxford University Press, 305–07.Google Scholar
  56. Stauth, Georg. 1994 [ 1991 ]. “Revolution in Spiritless Times: An Essay on Michel Foucault’s Enquiries into the Iranian Revolution.” In Michel Foucault: Critical Assessments, ed. B. Smart, vol. 3, London: Routledge, 379–401.Google Scholar
  57. Stauth, Georg, and Bryan S. Turner. 1988. Nietzsche’s Dance: Resentment, Reciprocity and Resistance in Social Life. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  58. Urbinati, Nadia. 1998. “The Souths of Antonio Gramsci and the Concept of Hegemony.” In Italy’s “Southern Question”: Orientalism in One Country, ed. Jane Schneider, New York: Berg, 135–56.Google Scholar
  59. Vico, Giambattista. 1999 [1744]. New Science. Principles of the New Science Concerning the Common Nature of the Nations, 3 ed., trans. David Marsh, London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  60. Vinco, Roberto. 1983. Una fede senza futuro? Religione e mondo cattolico in Gramsci. Verona: Mazziana.Google Scholar
  61. Voegelin, Eric. 1994. Das Volk Gottes. München: Wilhelm Fink.Google Scholar
  62. Watts, Michael. 1999. “Islamic Modernities? Citizenship, Civil Society, and Islamism in a Nigerian City.” In Cities and Citizenship, ed. James Holston, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 67–102.Google Scholar
  63. Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. 2002. The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. 2004. “The ‘Ulama of Contemporary Islam and their Conceptions of the Common Good.” In Public Islam and the Common Good, ed. Armando Salvatore and Dale F. Eickelman, Leiden and Boston: Brill, 129–55.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Armando Salvatore and Mark LeVine 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark LeVine
  • Armando Salvatore

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations