Where Neurocognition Meets the Master:Attention and Metacognition in Zen

  • Tracey L. Kahan
  • Patricia M. Simone

Abstract

In a classic Zen story, retold by Kapleau, a man approached Ikkyu, a Zen master, and asked for the highest wisdom.

Keywords

Fatigue Dopamine Hunt Haloperidol Amphetamine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdullaev, Y.G. and Posner, M.I. 1997. Time course of activating brain areas in generating verbal associations. Psychological Science, 8, 56–59. Aitken, R. 1982. Taking the Path of Zen. NewYork: North Point Press.Google Scholar
  2. Austin, J.H. 1998. Zen and the Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  3. Baars, B. 1988. A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. — 1997. In the Theater of Consciousness:TheWorkspace of the Mind. NewYork, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baddeley,A. 1987. Human Memory:Theory and Practice. London: Psychology Press. Bargh, J. and Chartrand, T. 1999. The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54, 462–479.Google Scholar
  5. Blackmore, S. 2004. Consciousness:An Introduction. NewYork: Oxford University Press. Blackstone, J. and Josipovic, Z. 1986. Zen for Beginners. NewYork:Writers’ and Readers’ Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Braver,T.S, Barch, D.M., Keys, B.A., Carter, C.S. Cohen, J. D., Kaye, J. A., 2001. Context processing in older adults: Evidence for a theory relating cognitive control to neurobiology in healthy aging. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130 (4), 746–763. Broadbent, D. 1958. Perception and Communication. London and NewYork: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, K.W. and Ryan, R.M. 2003. The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84 (4), 822–848. Brown, M.W. 1930. Continuous reaction as a measure of attention. Child Development, 1, 255–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cleary, T. (trans.) 1995. Minding Mind: A Course in Basic Meditation (especially Chapter 4: Zen Master Dogen:A generally recommended mode of sitting meditation, pp. 22–26. Boston, MA: Shambhala. Cohen, R.M., Semple, W.E., Gross, M., Holcomb, H.J., Dowling, S.M., and Nordahl, T.E. 1988.Google Scholar
  9. Functional localization of sustained attention. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neurology, 1, 3–20. Collins, A.M. & Loftus, E.F. 1975. A spreading activation theory of semantic processing. PsychologicalReview, 82, 407–428. Corbetta, M. 1998. Fronto-parietal cortical networds for directing attention and the eye to visual loca tions: Identical, independent, or overlapping neural systems? Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 95, 831–838. D’Aquili, E. & Newberg, A.B. 1999. The Mystical Mind: Probing the Biology of Religious Experience Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  10. Davidson, R.J., Kabat-Zirm, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., et al. 2003. Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564–570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Deikman,A.J. 1982. The Observing Self. Boston: Beacon Press. Dement,W. 1999. The Promise of Sleep. NewYork: Dell Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Desimone, R. and Duncan, J. 1995. Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review ofNeuroscience, 18, 193–222. Duffy, E. 1962. Activation and Behavior. NewYork:Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Edelman, G.M. 1989. The Remembered Present. NewYork: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  14. Epstein, M. 1995. Thoughts Without a Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist perspective. New York: Basic Books. Flavell, J.H. 1979. Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.Google Scholar
  15. Fuster, J.M. 1989. The Prefrontal Cortex: Anatomy, Physiology and Neuropsychology of the Frontal Lobe. NewYork: Raven Press. Goldman-Rakic, P.S. 1987. Circuitry of primate prefrontal cortex and regulation of behavior by repreGoogle Scholar
  16. sentational memory, in F. Plum and V. Mountcastle (eds.), Handbook of Physiology—The Nervous System, vol. 5. Behesda, MD:American Physiological Society, pp. 373–417. Hanh,T.N 1974. Zen Keys. NewYork, NY: Double Day & Co.Google Scholar
  17. — 1976. The Miracle of Mindfulness. Boston: Beacon Press. — 1998. The Heart of the Buddha’s Teachings. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hirst, W. 1986. The psychology of attention, in J.E. LeDoux and W. Hirst (eds.), Mind and Brain.Google Scholar
  19. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, pp. 105–141. Hirst, W., Spelke, E.S., Reaves, C.C., Caharack, G., and Neisser, U. 1980. Dividing attention without alternation or automaticity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109, 98–117. Huber, C. 2003. WhenYou’re Falling, Dive:Acceptance, Freedom and Possibility. Murphys, California: Keep itGoogle Scholar
  20. Simple Books. Humphreys, C. 1971. A Western Approach to Zen.Wheaton, IL:The Theosophical Publishing House.Google Scholar
  21. Humphreys, M.S. and Revelle,W. 1984. Personality, motivation, and performance:A theory of the relationship between individual difference and information processing. Psychological Review, 91, 153–184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hunt, H.T. 1995. On the Nature of Consciousness: Cognitive, Phenomenological, and Transpersonal Perspectives. New Haven: Yale University Press. James,W. 1890/1950. The Principles of Psychology, vol. 1. NewYork: Dover.Google Scholar
  23. John, E.R. 2003.A theory of consciousness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(6), 244–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnston, W.A. and Heinz, S.P. 1975. Depth of non-target processing in an attention task. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 5, 168–175.Google Scholar
  25. —1978. Flexibility and capacity demands of attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 107, 420–435. Kahneman, D. 1973. Attention and Effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  26. Kaplan S. 1987. Cited in: The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kapleau, P. (ed.) 1965. The Three Pillars of Zen:Teaching, Practice, and Enlightenment. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kolb, B. and Whishaw, I.Q. 2003. Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (especially pp. 384–385). NewYork, NY:Worth Publishers. LaBerge, D. 1975.Acquisition of automatic processing in perceptual and associative learning, in P.M.A.Google Scholar
  28. Rabbit and S. Dornic (eds.), Attention and Performance V. London:Academic Press, pp. 50–64. —1995.Attentional Processing:The Brain’s Art of Mindfulness.Cambridge,MA:Harvard University Press. Langer, E.J. 1989. Mindfulness. Reading, MA:Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  29. —2000. Mindful learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9 (6), 220–223.Google Scholar
  30. Lavie, N. and Cox, S. 1997. On the efficiency of visual selective attention: Efficient visual search leads to inefficient distractor rejection. Psychological Science, 8(5), 395–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lavie, N. and Fox, E. 2000. The role of perceptual load in negative priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26(3), 1038–1052. Mackworth, N.H. 1950. Researches on the measurement of human performance. Medical ResearchCouncil Special Report Series 268. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  32. MacLeod, C. (March/April, 1997). Is your attention under your control? The diabolic Stroop effect. Psychological Science Agenda, 6–7.Google Scholar
  33. Matthews, G., Davies, D.R., and Less, J.L. 1990. Arousal, extraversion, and individual differences in resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 150–168. Metcalfe, J. and Shimamura, A.P. (eds.) 1994. Metacognition: Knowing about Knowing. Cambridge, MA:Google Scholar
  34. MIT Press. Miller, E.K. 2000.The prefrontal cortex and cognitive control. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1, 59–65.Google Scholar
  35. Monk,T.H. 1991. Sleep, Sleepiness and Performance. NewYork, NY: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Morrison, J.H. and Foote, S.L. 1986 Noradrenergic and serotonergic innervation or cortical, thalamic and tectal structures in old and new world monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 143, 117–118. Motter, B.C. 1998. Neurophysiology of visual attention, in R. Parasuraman (ed.), The Attentive Brain Google Scholar
  37. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 51–70. Neibur, E. and Koch, C. 1998. Computational architectures for attention, in R. Parasuraman (ed.), TheAttentive Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 163–186.Google Scholar
  38. Nelson,T.O. 1992. Metacognition: Core Readings. Boston, MA:Allyn and Bacon. Nelson, T.O. and Narens, L. 1990. Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings, in G.H.Google Scholar
  39. Bower (ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, vol. 26 New York: Academic Press, pp. 125–173. Newman, J. and Baars, B. 1993.A neural attentional model for access to consciousness:A global work space perspective. Concepts in Neuroscience, 4 (2), 255–290.Google Scholar
  40. Novak, P. (Summer 1990).The practice of attention. Parabola, 5–12. Okumura, S. (trans.) 1985. Shikantaza:An Introduction to Zazen.Tokyo, Japan: Sotoshu Shomuchu.Google Scholar
  41. Parasuraman, R.1998. The attentive brain: Issues and prospects, in R. Parasuraman (ed.), The AttentiveBrain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 1–15. Parasuraman, R.,Wark, J.S., and See, J.E. 1998. Brain systems of vigilance, in R. Parasuraman (ed.), The Google Scholar
  42. Attentive Brain, Chapter 11. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 221–256. Posner, M.I. and Boies, S. J. 1971. Components of attention. Psychological Review, 78, 391–408.Google Scholar
  43. Posner, M.I. and DiGirolamo, G.J. 1998. Executive attention: Conflict, target detection, and cognitive control, in R. Parasuraman (ed.), The Attentive Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 401–423. — 2000. Cognitive neuroscience: Origins and promise. Psychological Bulletin, 126 (6), 873–889.Google Scholar
  44. Posner, M.I. and Peterson, S.E. 1990.The attention system in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13, 25–42. Posner, M.I. and Rothbart, M.K. 1991. Attentional mechanisms and conscious experience, inGoogle Scholar
  45. Millner, A.O. and Rugg, M.O. (eds.), The Neuropsychology of Consciousness, Chapter 5. New York: Academic Press, pp. 92–111. Rafal, R.D. 1996. Visual attention: Converging operations from neurology and psychology, inGoogle Scholar
  46. A.F Kramer, M.G.H. Coles and G.D. Logal (eds.), Converging Operations in the Study of Visual Selective Attention.Washington:American Psychological Association, pp. 139–192. Rani, N.J. and Rao, P.V.K. 1986. Meditation and attention regulation. Journal of Indian Psychology, 14 (1,2), 26–30.Google Scholar
  47. Rees, G., Kreiman, G., and Koch, C. 2002. Neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Neuroscience,3, 261–270. Robbins, T. 1998. Arousal and attention: Psychopharmacological and neuropsychological studies in experimental animals, in R. Parasuraman (ed.), The Attentive Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 198–220. Rosch, E. 1997. Mindfulness meditation and the private (?) self. In U. Neisser and D. Jopling (eds.), Culture, Experience, and the Conceptual Self. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, pp. 185–202. ———1999. Is wisdom in the brain? Psychological Science, 10 (3), 222–224.Google Scholar
  48. Rosenberg, E. 2004. Mindfulness and consumerism, in T. Kasser and A.D. Kanner (eds.), Psychology and Consumer Culture. Washington, DC:APA Books, pp. 107–125. Schneider, W. and Shiffrin, R.M. 1977. Controlled and automatic human information processing:Google Scholar
  49. Detection, search and attention. Psychological Review, 84, 1–66. Shapiro, S.L., Schwartz, G.E., and Bonner, G. 1998. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 581–599.Google Scholar
  50. Shiffrin, R.M. and Schneider, W. 1977. Controlled and automatic human information processing: II, Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review 84, 127–190. Solms, M. and Turnbull, O. 2002. The Brain and the Inner World: An Introduction to the Neuroscience ofSubjective Experience. NewYork, NY: Other Press. Solso, R.L. 2001. Cognitive Psychology, 6th ed. Boston, MA:Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  51. Solso, R.L., Maclin, M. K., and Maclin, O. H. 2005. Cognitive Psychology, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn &Google Scholar
  52. Bacon. Spelke, E., Hirst,W., and Neisser, U. 1976. Skills of divided attention. Cognition, 4, 215–230.Google Scholar
  53. Stroop, J.R. 1935. Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643–662. Suzuki, S. 1962. The Essentials of Zen Buddhism. NewYork: E. P. Dutton.Google Scholar
  54. — 1970. Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind. NewYork:Weatherhill.Google Scholar
  55. Teichner, W.H. 1974. The detection of a simple visual signal as a function of time on watch. Human Factors, 16, 339–353. Tipper, S.P. 1985.The negative priming effect: Inhibitory priming by ignored objects. Quarterly Journalof Experimental Psychology, 37A, 571–590. Tomita, H., Ohbayashi, M., Nakahara, K., Hasegawa, I., and Miyashita,Y. 1999.Top–down signal from prefrontal cortex in executive control of memory retrieval. Nature, 401, 699–703.Google Scholar
  56. Treisman, A. and Gelade, G. 1980. A feature integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97–136. Umitla, C. 1988. The control operations of consciousness, in A.J. Marcel and E. Bisiach (eds.), Consciousness and Contemporary Science. NewYork: Oxford University Press, pp. 334–355. —2000.Conscious experience depends on multiple brain systems.European Psychologist,5 (1),3–11.Google Scholar
  57. Underwood,T. 1997. On knowing what you know: Metacognition and the act of reading. The ClearingHouse, 71(2), 77–80. Valentine, E.R. and Sweet, P.L. 1999. Meditation and attention: A comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention. Mental Health, Religion, & Culture, 2, 59–70.Google Scholar
  58. Van Zomeren, A.H. and Brouwer, W.H. 1994. Clinical Neuropsychology of Attention. New York: Oxford University Press. Varela, F.J., Thompson, E., and Rosch, E. 1991. The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and HumanExperience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  59. Verfaellie, M., Bowers, D., and Heilman, K. 1988. Hemispheric asymmetries in mediating intention, but not selective attention. Neuropsychologia, 26, 521–531. [Cited by Austin 1998, re: point that attention is different from intention and where intention is defined as: “(normal), deliberate, anticipatory preparation for action,” p. 275.] Wallace,A. 1991.The Buddhist tradition of Samatha: Methods for refining and examining consciousness.Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6(2–3), 175–187.Google Scholar
  60. Walsh, R. and Vaughn, F. (eds.) 1993. Paths Beyond Ego:The Transpersonal Vision (especially pp. 47–55). NewYork:Tarcher-Putnam.Google Scholar
  61. Wilkins,A., Shallice,T., and McCarthy, R. 1987. Frontal lesions and sustained attention. Neuropsychologia, 25, 359–365. [Cited by Austin 1998, re: claim that points with frontal lobe damage have difficulty focusing in a boring, monotonous task.]Google Scholar
  62. Woods, D. and Knight, R. 1986. Electrophysiologic evidence of increased distractibility after dorsolateral prefontral lesions. Neurology, 36, 212–216. [Cited by Austin 1998.] Zaleski, P. and Kaufman, P. 1997. Gifts of the Spirit: Living theWisdom of the Great Religious Traditions (espe cially pp. 1–11). NewYork: HarperCollins.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kelly Bulkeley 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tracey L. Kahan
  • Patricia M. Simone

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations