Advertisement

Religion and Brain–Mind Science: Dreaming the Future

  • Kelly Bulkeley

Abstract

Now that we are a few years beyond the “Decade of the Brain” (so proclaimed by the first President Bush in 1991), we can see how thoroughly the recent findings of brain–mind science have revolutionized our knowledge of human nature.Researchers have made astonishing discoveries about the workings of memory, language, vision, emotion, rationality, imagination, and many other basic features of psychological functioning. The implications of these findings are dramatic for many different fields of study, nowhere more so than in religious studies. Contemporary brain–mind science is giving us new insights into the evolved nature of our species, and this makes it directly relevant to the world’s religious traditions insofar as they seek a deeper understanding of what it means to be human.The time has long since come when the abundant discoveries of brain–mind science and the extensive history of human religiosity should be compared, evaluated, and, where possible, integrated.

Keywords

NREM Sleep Psychological Dimension Dream Content Creative Power Divine Revelation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achmet. 1991. Oneirocriticon. S.M. Oberhelman (trans.). Lubbock:Texas Tech University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aserinsky, E. and Kleitman, N. 1953. Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena, during sleep. Science, 118, 273–274.Google Scholar
  3. —. 1955.Two types of ocular motility occurring in sleep. Journal of Applied Physiology, 8, 1–10.Google Scholar
  4. Augustine, A. 1991. Confessions. H. Chadwick (trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bowker, J. ed. 1997. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bulkeley, K. 1994. The Wilderness of Dreams: Exploring the Religious Meanings of Dreams in Modern Western Culture. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  7. —. 1997. An Introduction to the Psychology of Dreaming.Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  8. —. 1999a. Visions of the Night: Dreams, Religion, and Psychology.Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  9. —. 2000. Transforming Dreams: Learning Spiritual Lessons from the Dreams You Never Forget. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  10. —. 2003. Dreams of Healing:Transforming Nightmares into Visions of Hope. Mahwah: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  11. —. 2004. Revision of the Good Fortune Scale: A New Tool for the Study of “Big Dreams.” Paper read at International Association for the Study of Dreams, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  12. Cartwright, R. 1991. Dreams that work:The relation of dream incorporation to adaptation to stressful events. Dreaming, 1(1), 3–10.Google Scholar
  13. Curley, R.T. 1983. Dreams of power: Social process in a West African religious movement. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 53(3), 20–37.Google Scholar
  14. Dement, W. 1972. Some Must Watch While Some Must Sleep: Exploring the World of Sleep. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  15. Descola, P. 1993. The Spears of Twilight: Life and Death in the Amazon Jungle. New York:The New Press.Google Scholar
  16. Domhoff, G.W. 1996. Finding Meaning in Dreams:A Quantitative Approach. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  17. —. 2001a.A new neurocognitive theory of dreams, Dreaming, 11(1), 13–33.Google Scholar
  18. —. 2001b. Using content analysis to study dreams:Applications and implications for the humanities, in K. Bulkeley (ed.), Dreams: A Reader on the Religious, Cultural, and Psychological Dimensions of Dreaming. New York: Palgrave, pp. 307–320.Google Scholar
  19. Doniger, W. 2001.Western dreams about Eastern dreams, in K. Bulkeley (ed.), Dreams:A Reader on the Religious, Cultural, and Psychological Dimensions of Dreaming. New York: Palgrave, pp. 233–238.Google Scholar
  20. Ewing, K. 1989. The dream of spiritual initiation and the organization of self representations among Pakistani Sufis. American Ethnologist, 16, 56–74.Google Scholar
  21. Fisher, H.J. 1979. Dreams and conversion in Black Africa, in N. Levtzion (ed.), Conversion to Islam. NewYork: Holmes and Meier, pp. 217–235.Google Scholar
  22. Flanagan, O. 2000. Dreaming Souls: Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Foulkes, D. 1962. Dream reports from different states of sleep. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65, 14–25.Google Scholar
  24. —. 1999. Children’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Freud, S. 1965. The Interpretation of Dreams. J. Strachey (trans.). New York:Avon Books.Google Scholar
  26. Gackenbach, J. 1991. Frameworks for understanding lucid dreaming:A review. Dreaming, 1(2), 109–128.Google Scholar
  27. Gackenbach, J. and LaBerge, S. (eds.) 1988. Conscious Mind, Sleeping Brain: Perspectives on Lucid Dreaming. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gillespie, G. 1988. Lucid dreams in Tibetan Buddhism, in J. Gackenbach and S. LaBerge (eds.), Conscious Mind, Sleeping Brain: Perspectives on Lucid Dreaming, New York: Plenum Press, pp. 27–36.Google Scholar
  29. Greenberg, R., Pillard, R., and Pearlman, C. 1972.The effect of dream (REM) deprivation on adaptation to stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 34, 257–262.Google Scholar
  30. Gregor, T. 1981.”Far, far away my shadow wandered … “:The dream symbolism and dream theories of the Mehinaku Indians of Brazil. American Ethnologist, 8(4), 709–729.Google Scholar
  31. Hall, C. 1966. The Meaning of Dreams. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  32. Hall, C. and Van de Castle, R. 1966. The Content Analysis of Dreams. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  33. Hall, J.A. 1993. The Unconscious Christian: Images of God in Dreams. Mahwah: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  34. Harris, M. 1994. Studies in Jewish Dream Interpretation. Northvale: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  35. Hartmann, E. 1995. Making connections in a safe place: Is dreaming psychotherapy? Dreaming, 5(4), 213–228.Google Scholar
  36. Hermansen, M. 2001. Dreams and dreaming in Islam, in K. Bulkeley (ed.), Dreams: A Reader on the Religious, Cultural, and Psychological Dimensions of Dreaming. New York: Palgrave, pp. 73–92.Google Scholar
  37. Hobson, J.A. 1988. The Dreaming Brain. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  38. —. 1999. Dreaming as Delirium: How the Brain Goes Out of Its Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hobson, J.A. and McCarley, R. 1977. The brain as a dream state generator: An activation–synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 1335–1348.Google Scholar
  40. Hoffman, V. 1997.The role of visions in contemporary Egyptian religious life. Religion, 27(1), 45–64.Google Scholar
  41. Hunt, H. 1989. The Multiplicity of Dreams: Memory, Imagination, and Consciousness. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Irwin, L. 1994. The Dream Seekers: Native American Visionary Traditions of the Great Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  43. James, W. 1958. The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: Mentor.Google Scholar
  44. Jedrej, M.C. and Shaw, R. (eds.) 1992. Dreaming, Religion, and Society in Africa. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  45. Jones, R.M. 1978. The New Psychology of Dreaming. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  46. Jouvet, M. 1999. The Paradox of Sleep: The Story of Dreaming. L. Garey (trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  47. Jung, C.G. 1965. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. R. Winston and C. Winston (trans.). New York:Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  48. —. 1974. On the nature of dreams, in Dreams. Princeton: Princeton University Press (Original work published in 1948), pp. 67–84.Google Scholar
  49. Kahan, T.L. 2000. The “problem” of dreaming in NREM sleep continues to challenge reductionist (2-Gen) models of dream generation (commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 956–958.Google Scholar
  50. —. 2001. Consciousness in dreaming: A metacognitive approach, in K. Bulkeley (ed.), Dreams: A Reader on the Religious, Cultural, and Psychological Dimensions of Dreaming. New York: Palgrave, pp. 333–360.Google Scholar
  51. Kahn, D. and Hobson, J.A. 1993. Self-organization theory and dreaming. Dreaming, 3(3), 151–178.Google Scholar
  52. Kahn, D. Krippner, S., and Combs, A. 2000. Dreaming and the self-organizing brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7(7), 4–11.Google Scholar
  53. Kelsey, M. 1991. God, Dreams, and Revelation:A Christian Interpretation of Dreams. Minneapolis:Augsburg Publishing.Google Scholar
  54. Khaldun, I. 1967. The Muqaddimah. F. Rosenthal (trans.). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Knudson, R. 2001. Significant dreams: Bizarre or beautiful? Dreaming, 11(4), 167–178.Google Scholar
  56. Kramer, H. and Sprenger, J. 1971. The Malleus Maleficarum. M. Summers (trans.). New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  57. Krippner, S. Bogzaran, F. and de Carvalho, A.P. 2002. Extraordinary Dreams and How to Work with Them. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  58. Kuiken, D. and Sikora, S. 1993. The impact of dreams on waking thoughts and feelings, in A. Moffitt, M. Kramer, and R.Hoffmann (eds.), The Functions of Dreaming.Albany:State University of New York Press, pp. 419–476.Google Scholar
  59. LaBerge, S. 1985. Lucid dreaming:The Power of Being Awake and Aware in Your Dreams. Los Angeles: Jeremy Tarcher.Google Scholar
  60. Lama, The Dalai. 1997. Sleeping, Dreaming, and Dying. Boston:Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  61. Lamoreaux, J.C. 2002. The Early Muslim Tradition of Dream Interpretation. Albany: State University of NewYork Press.Google Scholar
  62. Lanternari, V. 1975. Dreams as charismatic significants:Their bearing on the rise of new religious movements, in T.R.Williams (ed.), Psychological Anthropology. Paris: Mouton, pp. 221–235.Google Scholar
  63. Laufer, B. 1931. Inspirational dreams in East Asia. Journal of American Folk-Lore, 44, 208–216.Google Scholar
  64. Lohmann, R. 2001.The role of dreams in religious enculturation among the Asabano of Papua New Guineam, in K. Bulkeley (ed.), Dreams:A Reader on the Religious, Cultural, and Psychological Dimensions of Dreaming. New York: Palgrave, pp. 111–132.Google Scholar
  65. Luther, M. 1945. Luther’s Works. J. Pelikan (trans.). St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  66. Mageo, J.M. ed. 2003. Dreaming and the Self: New Perspectives on Subjectivity, Identity, and Emotion. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  67. Miller, P.C. 1994. Dreams in Late Antiquity: Studies in the Imagination of a Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  68. M’Timkulu, D. 1977. Some aspects of Zulu religion, in J. Newell and S. Booth (eds.), African Religions: A Symposium. New York: NOK Publications, pp. 13–30.Google Scholar
  69. Nielsen, T. 2000. Cognition in REM and NREM sleep: A review and possible reconciliation of two models of sleep mentation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 851–866.Google Scholar
  70. Nietzsche, F. 1967. The Birth of Tragedy. W. Kaufmann (trans.). New York: Vintage (original work published in 1872).Google Scholar
  71. Norbu, N. 1992. Dream Yoga and the Practice of Natural Light. Ithaca: Snow Lions Publications.Google Scholar
  72. O’Flaherty, W.D. 1984. Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  73. Ong, R.K. 1985. The Interpretation of Dreams in Ancient China. Bochum: Studienverlag Brockmeyer.Google Scholar
  74. Osborne, K.E. 1970. A Christian graveyard cult in the New Guinea highlands. Practical Anthropologist, 46(3), 10–15.Google Scholar
  75. Pace-Schott, E., Solms, M., Blagrove, M., and Harnad, S. (eds.) 2003. Sleep and Dreaming: Scientific Advances and Reconsiderations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Patton, K. 2002. Dream Incubation:Theology and Topography. Paper read at 19th International Conference of the Association for the Study of Dreams, June 19, Boston, Massachussetts.Google Scholar
  77. Peel, J.D.Y. 1968. Aladura:A Religious Movement among the Yoruba. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Revonsuo, A. 2000. The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 877–901.Google Scholar
  79. Rinpoche, T.W. 1998. The Tibetan Yogas of Dream and Sleep. Ithaca: Snow Lions Publications.Google Scholar
  80. Sanford, J. 1982. Dreams: God’s Forgotten Language. New York: Crossroads.Google Scholar
  81. Savary, L.M., Berne, P.H., and Williams, S.K. 1984. Dreams and Spiritual Growth: A Christian Approach to Dreamwork. Mahwah: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  82. Smith, C. 1993. REM sleep and learning: Some recent findings, in A. Moffitt, M. Kramer, and R. Hoffmann (eds.), The Functions of Dreaming.Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  83. Solms, M. 1997. The Neuropsychology of Dreams:A Clinico-Anatomical Study. Mahway: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  84. Stephen, M. 1995. A‘Aisa’s Gifts:A Study of Magic and the Self. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  85. Szpakowska, K. 2001.Through the looking glass: Dreams in ancient Egypt, in K. Bulkeley (ed.), Dreams: A Reader on the Religious, Cultural, and Psychological Dimensions of Dreaming. New York: Palgrave, pp. 29–44.Google Scholar
  86. Taylor, J. 1983. Dream Work. Mahwah: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  87. —. 1992. Where People Fly and Water Runs Uphill. New York:Warner Books.Google Scholar
  88. Tedlock, B. 2001. The new anthropology of dreaming, in K. Bulkeley (ed.), Dreams: A Reader on the Religious, Cultural, and Psychological Dimensions of Dreaming. New York: Palgrave, pp. 249–264.Google Scholar
  89. —. (ed.) 1987. Dreaming: Anthropological and Psychological Interpretations. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Trimingham, S. 1959. Islam in West Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  91. Trompf, G.W. 1990. Melanesian Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Von Grunebaum, G.E. and Callois, R. (eds.) 1966. The Dream and Human Societies. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  93. Wayman, A. 1967. Significance of dreams in India and Tibet. History of Religions, 7, 1–12.Google Scholar
  94. Young, S. 1999. Dreaming in the Lotus: Buddhist Dream Narrative, Imagery, and Practice. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  95. —. 2001. Buddhist dream experience:The role of interpretation, ritual, and gender, in K. Bulkeley (ed.), Dreams: A Reader on the Religious, Cultural, and Psychological Dimensions of Dreaming. New York: Palgrave, pp. 9–28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kelly Bulkeley 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly Bulkeley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations