Russwurm, the Colonizationist, and the Anti-Colonizationists in America

  • Amos J. Beyan


Russwurm had sought refuge in the black community in New York City, partly because he believed that it was the best place to fight against American institutional racism that was increasingly becoming national, and affecting nearly every aspect of the lives of blacks. As illustrated, the war against American racism was waged through the Freedom’s Journal. Essays written or sermons or speeches presented against the oppression of blacks were usually published in the journal.1 The release of the Freedom’s Journal did not, however, ease the unjust treatments of blacks; in reality, it was reinforced from the 1820s to the beginning of the American Civil War in 1861.2


Black Community White Colonizationist American Racism Black Leader Foreign Land 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Martin E. Dann, ed., The Black Press, 1827–1890: The Quest for National Identity (New York, 1971), pp. 33–37; Freedom’s Journal, March 16, 1827;Google Scholar
  2. Herbert Aptheker, A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States: From Colonial Times Through the Civil War, vol. 1 (New York, 1968), pp. 82–85, 89–90;Google Scholar
  3. Bella Gross, Freedom’s Journal and the Rights of All, The Journal of Negro History, vol. 15 (1932), pp. 242–244; and “The First National Negro Convention,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 31 (1946), pp. 435–443.Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    Richard Wade, “The Negro in Cincinnati, 1800–1830,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 39. (1954), pp. 50–55;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carter G. Woodson, “The Negroes of Cincinnati Prior to the Civil War,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 1 (1916) pp. 1–22;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carter G. Woodson, A Century of Negro Immigration (Washington, DC, 1918), pp. 56–57;Google Scholar
  7. C. Smith, The Liberty of Free Soil Parties in Northwest (New York, 1897), pp. 162–172;Google Scholar
  8. Robert Ernest, “The Economic States of New York City Negroes, 1850–1863,” Negro History Bulletin, vol. 12, March (1949), pp. 139–141;Google Scholar
  9. Charles H. Wesley, Negro Labor in the United States, 1850–1925 (New York, 1927), pp. 79–80;Google Scholar
  10. Albon P. Man Jr., “Labor Competition and the New York Draft Riots of 1863,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 36 (1951), pp. 393–394;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Leo H. Hirsch Jr., “The Negro and New York, 1783 to 1865,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 16 (1931), pp. 382–473;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. A. A. Payne, “The Negro in New York, Prior to 1860,” Howard Review, vol. 1 (1923), pp. 1–64;Google Scholar
  13. James H. Rodabaugh, “The Negro in Ohio,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 31 (1946), pp. 9–29;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. and J. Reuben Sheeler, “The Struggle of Negro in Ohio for Freedom,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 31 (1946), pp. 208–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 4.
    John B. Russwurm, from New York, February 26, 1827, to Ralph Gurley, reel 2. Records of the American Colonization Society, hereafter cited as (RACS), and reel, and reel’s number. Also quoted in Woodson, ed., The Mind of the Negro as Reflected in Letters Written during the Crisis, 1800–1860 (1926; reprinted, New York, 1968), p. 3.Google Scholar
  16. 8.
    For similar justifications by White Colonizationists see the following studies: Amos J. Beyan, The American Colonization Society and the Creation of the Liberian State, 1822–1980 (Lanham, MD, 1991), pp. 4–6;Google Scholar
  17. Amos J. Beyan, “The American Background of Recurrent Themes in the Political History of Liberia,” Liberian Studies Journal, vol. 19, no. 1 (1994), pp. 22–24, 25–26; J. Tracy, A View of Exertions Lately Made for Purpose of Colonizing the Free People of Color in Africa or Elsewhere (Washington, DC, 1817), pp. 4, 30;Google Scholar
  18. Archibald Alexander, A History of Colonization on the West Coast of Africa (Philadelphia, 1846), pp. 77–82;Google Scholar
  19. William Jay, Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery (New York, 1853), pp. 97–99; African Repository, vol. 5 (1828), pp. 277–278; William Jay, vol. 9 (1833), p. 358;Google Scholar
  20. Leon F. Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1770–1860 (Chicago, 1961), pp. 18–24; and the Third Annual Reports of the ACS (Washington, DC, 1820), p. 24.Google Scholar
  21. 13.
    Beyan, The American Colonization Society, p. 2; Beyan, “American Background of Recurrent Themes in the Political History of Liberia,” pp. 21, 24–25; Floyd Miller, The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Colonization and Emigration, 1787–1863 (Chicago, 1975), pp. 54–90; Woodson, ed., The Mind of Negro as Reflected in Letters, pp. 1–158;Google Scholar
  22. Bella Gross, Clarion Call: The History and Development of the Negro People’s Convention Movement in the United States from 1817 to 1840 (New York, 1947), pp. 5–10; William L. Garrison, Thoughts on Colonization (Boston, 1832), pp. 9–10; Liberator, Boston, August 1, 1935; Niles’ Weekly Register, Baltimore, November 27, 1819; Fifth Annual Report of the ACS (1822), pp. 8–9;Google Scholar
  23. Charles I. Foster, “The Colonization of Free Negroes in Liberia, 1816–1835,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 38 (1953), pp. 41–66;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frederic Bancroft, “The Colonization of American Negroes, 1801–1865,” in Jacob E. Cooke, ed., Frederic Bancroft (Norma, OK, 1957), pp. 147–191.Google Scholar
  25. 14.
    G. B. Stebbins, Facts and Opinions Touching the Real Origin, Character, and Influence of the American Colonization Society: Views of Wilberforce, Clackson, and Others, and Opinions of the Free People of Color of the United States (1853; reprinted, New York, 1969), pp. 194–224; Garrison, Thoughts on Colonization, pp. 8–10; Gross, Clarion Call, pp. 5–9;Google Scholar
  26. and Louis R. Mehlinger “The Attitudes of the Free Negro Toward African Colonization,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 1 (1916), pp. 276–301. 19. Gross, Clarion Call, pp. 3–4; Garrison, Thoughts on Colonization, pp. 8–10;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. and Phil Sigler, “The Attitudes of the Free Blacks Towards Emigration,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University (1969), pp. 69–70.Google Scholar
  28. 21.
    David Walker, An Appeal in Four Articles, Together with a Preamble, to the Colored Citizens of the World, but in Particular and Very Expressly to those of the United States of America Written in Boston, State of Massachusetts, September 28, 1829, 3rd edition (Boston, 1830), pp. 1–39; Clement Eaton, “A Dangerous Pamphlet in the Old South,” Journal of Southern History, vol. 11 (1936), pp. 323–334; Liberator Boston, January 29, 1831; “The First Colored Convention,” Anglo-African Magazine, vol. 1 (New York, 1859), pp. 305–310; and Aptheker, ed., Documentary History, vol. 1, pp. 102–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 31.
    Gross, Clarion Call, pp. 7–8; Gross, “Freedom’s Journal and the Rights of All,” pp. 177–179; Liberator, Boston, April 9 and 16, 1831; Julie Winch, Philadelphia’s Black Elite Activism and Accomodation and the Struggle for Autonomy, 1787–1848 (Philadelphia, 1988), pp. 42–43; and Sigler, “The Attitudes of Free Blacks Towards Emigration to Liberia,” p. 69.Google Scholar
  30. 37.
    Gross, “Freedom’s Journal and the Rights of All,” The Journal of Negro History, vol. 15, July (1932), p. 281; and Colored American, New York, March 4, 1837.Google Scholar
  31. 39.
    Donald G. Nieman, Promises to Keep: African Americans and the Constitution Order, 1776 to the Present (New York, 1991), pp. 30–49;Google Scholar
  32. Phillip S. Foner and George E. Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Convention, 1840–1865, vol. 1 (Philadelphia, 1979), pp. 259–260;Google Scholar
  33. Foner, ed., The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 2 (New York, 1950), pp. 415, 420, 423;Google Scholar
  34. and William M. Wiecek, The Sources of Anti-Slavery Constitutionalism in America 1760–1848 (Ithaca, NY, 1978), p. 265.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Amos J. Beyan 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amos J. Beyan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations