Something Kept on Ice

  • Michael Paller


As Williams recovered from the poor reception of Camino Real, the campaign against gay men and lesbians in America broadened and intensified. Days after the opening, Williams and his lover, Frank Merlo, returned to Key West. Two months earlier, at the order of the mayor, Miami police raided several gay bars and cruising areas following the murders of two gay men who had been picked up in bars. What followed was a classic example of further victimizing the victims. The City Council passed a law requiring professional chaperones in movie theatres to protect teenage customers from homosexual predators; it approved legislation forbidding the serving or selling of alcohol to homosexuals. The mayor then called for a change in the law so that gay men and lesbians could be prosecuted under an existing white slavery act. By the end of 1953, the names of those arrested for “homosexual offenses” in Miami were made available to police departments across the southern part of the state.1


Short Story Acting Edition Summer Game Guilty Feeling Stage Direction 
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  1. 1.
    John D’Emilio, Making Trouble: Essays on Gay History, Politics and the University (New York and Londo: Routledge, 1992), 63.Google Scholar
  2. 9.
    Ruth and Augustus Goetz, The Immoralist (New York: Dramatists Play Service, 1980), 44, 45. Subsequent references are noted in the text.Google Scholar
  3. 10.
    Eric Bentley, What is Theatre? (New York: Limelight Editions, 1984), 150.Google Scholar
  4. 12.
    John Chapman, “‘The Immoralist’ Sure Enough Is,” Daily News, February 9, 1954. New York Theatre Critics Reviews, 1954.Google Scholar
  5. 13.
    Tennessee Williams, “Three Players of a Summer Game,” in Collected Stories (New York: New Directions, 1985), 305–6. Subsequent references are in the text.Google Scholar
  6. 14.
    Tennessee Williams, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (New York: Signet Books, 1955), 45. Subsequent references to this edition are in the text.Google Scholar
  7. 20.
    Walter E Kerr, “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof,” Herald Tribune, March 25, 1955.Google Scholar
  8. 24.
    Tennessee Williams, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (New York: Dramatists Play Service, 1958), 28.Google Scholar
  9. 25.
    Nicholas de Jongh, Not in Front of the Audience (London and New York: Routledge, 1992), 71.Google Scholar
  10. 29.
    Qtd. in Kenneth Lewes, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Male Homosexuality (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988), 136–37; Jones, 110.Google Scholar

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© Michael Paller 2005

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  • Michael Paller

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