Meta-Psychological Versus Operative Measures of Ambivalence

Differentiating the Consequences of Perceived Intra-Psychic Conflict and Real Intra-Psychic Conflict
  • Allyson L. Holbrook
  • Jon A. Krosnick


In building theories about the inner workings of political actors’ minds, political psychologists often posit the existence of latent constructs such as attitudes, beliefs, and personality dispositions. Although no one has ever directly seen an attitude, belief, or personality disposition, assuming that these constructs exist helps scholars to explain political behavior. In this sense, psychological constructs are similar to physical constructs (such as energy) that have been proposed by physicists, chemists, and other scientists to explain the observable phenomena of interest to them.


Capital Punishment Candidate Preference Issue Position Target Issue Persuasive Message 
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Copyright information

© Stephen C. Craig and Michael D. Martinez 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allyson L. Holbrook
  • Jon A. Krosnick

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