The Electoral Implications of Social and Economic Change since 1994

  • Jeremy Seekings

Abstract

Voting behavior in most countries is shaped by voters’ social and economic positions. Social and economic changes therefore often have profound electoral implications, eroding support for some parties while improving opportunities for others. Since the end of apartheid in 1994, South African society has changed dramatically, with the rapid growth of the black middle classes at the same time as rising unemployment and declining life expectancy due to AIDS. Inequality has continued to shift from race to class, with growing intraracial inequalities. Yet these social and economic changes have not recast the country’s political cleavages. Racial identities have proved resilient and political loyalties seem deep rooted. The major political parties have proved more adept at forging racially based, cross-class than cross-racial coalitions. There are signs of the growing salience of class, but not in the electoral arena.

Keywords

Income Stratification Arena Nigeria Sonal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 7.
    Jeremy Seekings and Nicoli Nattrass, From Race to Class: The Changing Nature of Inequality in South Africa (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 9.
    Nicoli Nattrass, “The Debate about Unemployment in the 1990s,”Journal of Studies in Economics and Econometrics 24, no. 3 (2000): 73–90.Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    Nicoli Nattrass, “The State of the Economy: A Crisis of Employment,” in State of the Nation: South Africa, 2003–2004, ed. John Daniel, Adam Habib, and Roger Southall (Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council, 2003), 141–157.Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    Haroon Bhorat, Murray Leibbrandt, Mmuzi Maziya, Servaas van der Berg, and Ingrid Woolard, Fighting Poverty: Labour Markets and Inequality in South Africa (Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    Jeremy Seekings, “Visions of Society: Peasants, Workers and the Unemployed in a Changing South Africa,” Journal of Studies in Economics and Econometrics 24, no. 3 (2000): 53–72.Google Scholar
  6. 11.
    Bridget Kenny and Eddie Webster, “Eroding the Core: Flexibility and the Resegmentation of the South African Labour Market,” Critical Sociology 24, no. 3 (1998): 216–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 12.
    Johannes Fedderke and M. Mariotti, “Changing Labour Market Conditions in South Africa: A Sectoral Analysis of the Period 1970–97,” South African Journal of Economics 70, no. 5 (2002): 830–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 12.
    Haroon Bhorat and James Hodge, “Decomposing Shifts in Labour Demand in South Africa,” South African Journal of Economics 67, no. 3 (1999): 348–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lawrence Edwards, “Globalisation and the Skills Bias of Occupational Employment in South Africa,” South African Journal of Economics 69, no. 1 (2001): 40–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 12.
    T. Simbi and Michael Aliber, “The Agricultural Employment Crisis in South Africa” (paper presented at the Development Policy Research Unit and Trade and Industrial Policy Secretariat Forum, Muldersdrift, September 2000).Google Scholar
  11. 15.
    A. Berry, M. von Klottnitz, R. Cassim, A. Kesper, B. Rajaratnam, and D. Van Seventer, The Economics of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises in South Africa (Johannesburg: Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies, 2002).Google Scholar
  12. 15.
    Charles Simkins, “Employment and Unemployment in South Africa” (unpublished paper, 2003).Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Nicoli Nattrass, The Moral Economy of AIDS in South Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    Jeremy Seekings, “The Broader Importance of Welfare Reform in South Africa,” Social Dynamics 28, no. 2 (2002): 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 18.
    Servaas van der Berg, “Redistribution through the Budget: Public Expenditure Incidence in South Africa, 1993–1997,” Social Dynamics 27, no. 1 (2001): 140–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 19.
    Nicoli Nattrass and Jeremy Seekings, “Democracy and Distribution in Highly Unequal Economies: The Case of South Africa,” The Journal of Modern African Studies 39, no. 3 (2001): 471–498; Seekings, “Broader Importance.”CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 20.
    Michael McGrath, Catherine Janisch, and C. Horner, “Redistribution through the Fiscal System in the South African Economy” (paper presented to the Economics Society of South Africa Conference, Potchefstroom, 1997).Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    Servaas van der Berg, “Trends in Racial Fiscal Incidence in South Africa,” South African Journal of Economics 69, no. 2 (2001): 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 22.
    Michael Samson, “The Social, Economic and Fiscal Impact of Comprehensive Social Security Reform in South Africa,” Social Dynamics 28, no. 2 (2002): 69–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 23.
    Pieter Le Roux, “Financing a Universal Income Grant in South Africa,” Social Dynamics 28, no. 2 (2002): 98–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 23.
    Haroon Bhorat Samson, “A Universal Income Grant for South Africa: An Empirical Assessment,” in A Basic Income Grant for South Africa, ed. Michael Samson and Guy Standing (Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2003), 77–101.Google Scholar
  22. 24.
    Steven Friedman and Ivor Chipkin, “A Poor Voice? The Politics of Inequality in South Africa,” Centre for Policy Studies Research Report, 87 (Johannesburg: Centre for Policy Studies, 2001): 16.Google Scholar
  23. 26.
    Robert Mattes, “Democracy Without the People: Economics, Institutions and Public Opinion in South Africa,”Journal of Democracy 13, no.1 (January 2002): 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 27.
    Ashwin Desai, “Neoliberalism and Resistance in South Africa” Monthly Review 54, no. 8 (2003): 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 29.
    Robert Mattes and Jessica Piombo, “Opposition Parties and the Voters in South Africa’s 1999 Election,” Democratization 8, no.13 (Autumn 2001): 101–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 31.
    Nancy Birdsall and Carol Graham, New Markets, New Opportunities: Economic and Social Mobility in a Changing World (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  27. 32.
    Craig Charney, “Voices of a New Democracy: African Expectations in the New South Africa,” Research Report no. 38 (Johannesburg: Centre for Policy Studies, 1995).Google Scholar
  28. 32.
    Nicoli Nattrass and Jeremy Seekings, “Growth, Democracy and Expectations in South Africa,” in Economic Globalisation and Fiscal Policy, ed. Iran Abedian and Michael Biggs (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1998), 27–53.Google Scholar
  29. 33.
    Owen Crankshaw, Race, Class and the Changing Division of Labour under Apartheid (London: Routledge, 1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 36.
    Dale McKinley, The ANC and the Liberation Struggle (London: Pluto Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  31. 36.
    Patrick Bond, Elite Transition: From Apartheid to Neo-Liberalism in South Africa (Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  32. 36.
    Hein Marais, South Africa, Limits to Change: The Political Economy of Transition (Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 1998).Google Scholar
  33. 37.
    Glenn Adler and Eddie Webster, “Towards a Class Compromise in South Africa’s ‘Double Transition’: Bargained Liberalization and the Consolidation of Democracy,” Politics and Society 27, no. 3 (1999): 347–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 39.
    Heidi Matisonn and Jeremy Seekings, “The Politics of a Basic Income Grant in South Africa, 1996–2002,” in A Basic Income Grant for South Africa, ed. Michael Samson and Guy Standing (Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2003), 56–76.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jessica Piombo and Lia Nijzink 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy Seekings

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations