Terrorism pp 47-65 | Cite as

The End of the Napoleonic Wars to World War I

  • James M. Lutz
  • Brenda J. Lutz

Abstract

The rise of Napoleon, and his eventual defeat, ushered in a new era in both national and international politics. Mass mobilization of states and civilian armies had become more prevalent, as had nationalism. France mobilized millions based on both ideology and nationalism, and the coalitions organized against Napoleon relied on national feeling as well. The remainder of the nineteenth century witnessed a number of conflicts, including some that involved reliance on terrorism. The examples include the continuation of pagabsil in parts of Asia, the Boxer Rebellion, activities of Chinese secret societies in other settings, the anarchists, and the Serbian Black Hand. There was the persecution of the Mormons before the Civil War, terrorist violence surrounding the debate over slavery in the Kansas Territory, and the actions of the Ku Klux Klan after that conflict. The first use of terror tactics by Irish nationalists against Great Britain occurred during this time, and there was terrorist activity in Bengal in British India. Terrorism also played a role in the efforts of various Christian nationalities to break free of the rule of the Ottoman Empire. This period saw the beginning of governmental use of terrorism against citizens of the state by the Black Hundred in Russia and the attacks against the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire that ended with a genocidal campaign during World War I.

Keywords

Europe Triad Defend Toll Concession 

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Notes

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© James M. Lutz and Brenda J. Lutz 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Lutz
  • Brenda J. Lutz

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