Terrorism pp 35-46 | Cite as

Terrorism in the Age of Revolutions

  • James M. Lutz
  • Brenda J. Lutz


The Reformation was the forerunner to what is often called the Age of Revolutions that lasted from the mid-seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth century. The Reformation highlighted communal identities in the form of the religious persecution that went hand in hand with the religious diversity that appeared in this period. Kings and princes often saw minority religious groups as potentially disloyal to the crown. The resulting religious persecutions, however, usually qualify as repression rather than state terrorism. Individuals knew they would be arrested if they were caught practicing an unacceptable religion. There were attacks by indigenous Muslims in South and Southeast Asia against the European colonizers. There are no examples of terrorism in the Puritan Revolution and the Glorious Revolution in England, but there were terrorist incidents connected with the outbreak of the American Revolution, the uprising in Haiti, a series of rebellions in the Andes in Spanish America, and, of course, the French Revolution—including the period of the Reign of Terror.


French Revolution British Coloni Boston Harbor Terrorist Incident American Revolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. J. Knecht, The French Wars of Religion, 1559–1598, 2nd ed., Seminar Studies in History (Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1996), pp. 48–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cf. Peter Beresford Ellis, Hell or Connaught! The Cromwellian Colonis,rüou of Ireland 1652–1660 (New York: St. Martin’s, 1975).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benson Bobrick, Angel in the Whirlwind: The Triumph of the American Revolution (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), p. 75Google Scholar
  4. Division of Archives and History (State of New York), The American Revolution in New York: Its Political, Social and Economic Significance (Albany: The University of the State of New York, 1926), pp. 14–18.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bobrick, Angel in the Whirlwind, p. 62; Paul Bradley Davis, “American Experiences and the Contemporary Perception of Terrorism,” Small Wars and Insurgencies, Vol. 7, No. 2 (1996), p. 224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Robert Leckie, George Washington’s War: The Saga of the American Revolution (New York: Harper Collins, 1992), p. 79.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nicholas A. Robins, Genocide Lmd Millennialism in Upper Peru:The Great Rebellion of 1780–1782 (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002), pp. 103–04.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sinclair Thomson, We Alone Will Rule: Native Andean Politics in the Age of Insurgency (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002), p. 106.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ward Stavig, The World of Tupac Amarrr: Conflict, Community, and Identity in Colonial Peru (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999), Chap. 5.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    Laurent Dubois, Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Hark ard University Press, 2004), pp. 77–78.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the Santo Domingo Revolution, 2nd rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 1963), pp. 96–97, 101.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    Martin Ros, Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti, Karin Ford-Treep, trans. (New York: Sarpedon, 1994), p. 197.Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Karin Andriolo, “Murder by Suicide: Episodes from Muslim History,” American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 3 (2002), pp. 736–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Thomas M. McKenna, “Murdered or Martyred: Popular Evaluations of Violent Death in the Muslim Separatist Movement in the Philippines,” in Jeffrey A. Sluka (ed.), Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), p. 193.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Stephen Frederic Dale, “Religious Suicide in Islamic Asia: Anticolonial Terrorism in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 32, No. 1 (1988), p. 49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 19.
    Francois Furet, “Terror,” in Francois Furet and Mona Ozouf (eds.), A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution, Arthur Goldhammer, trans. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1989), p. 148.Google Scholar
  17. 20.
    Paddy Griffith, The Art of War of Revolutionary France, 1789–1802 (London: Greenhill Books, 1998), pp. 62–63.Google Scholar
  18. 21.
    George Rude, The Crowd in the French Revolution (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1959), p. 113.Google Scholar
  19. 26.
    Furet, “Terror,” p. 147; Donald Greer, The Incidence of Terror during the French Revolution: A Statistical Interpretation (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1935), pp. 16–17; and Griffith, The Art of War, Chapter 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 32.
    Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Haiti: State against Nation The Origins and Legacy of Duvalierism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1990), p. 119.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© James M. Lutz and Brenda J. Lutz 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Lutz
  • Brenda J. Lutz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations