Terrorism has been a problem for governments at least since the time of the Greeks and the Romans and has been more common than is commonly thought. Additional cases from the past will become known as historical investigations analyze earlier violent group activities from perspectives that take into account the possibility that dissident groups used terrorist tactics to achieve their political goals. This volume may even serve to encourage some research using new perspectives. Terrorism has occurred in virtually all parts of the world and in all types of society. Even the totalitarian states that avoided or eliminated dissident violence were responsible for state terrorism against their own citizens. Some types of groups or forms of terrorism have been more frequent in different historical periods. No one cause for outbreaks of terrorism was obvious in the preceding chapters, but terrorism was more likely to occur under some circumstances. Since there is no single cause for terrorism, it is unlikely that there can be any single response that is guaranteed to prevent or overcome the dissidents that rely on terrorism.
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