Terrorism pp 129-157 | Cite as

From Marxism Back to Communalism

  • James M. Lutz
  • Brenda J. Lutz

Abstract

The economic and political failures of Communism and then its collapse largely put an end to the widespread presence of violent leftist dissident groups, especially in the countries of West Europe and Latin America, where they had been so prominent. The 17 November Movement in Greece is one of the few groups that continued on into the 1990s and later, but this group had avoided connections with any of the existing Communist states. The collapse of the Soviet Union also meant that the Cold War had ended and some state supported terrorism disappeared. The end of the Cold War did not make terrorism redundant, and it has in many ways “become even more complex, multifaceted and lethal.”1 The attacks of September 11, 2001 were in some ways the culmination of this trend of increasing casualties. In the years after 1990, communalism—especially based in religion—reappeared as a major source of dissident terrorism. Violence also was associated with the breakup of empires, a phenomenon seen earlier in time. In this period, it was the disintegration of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. The 1990s also saw a significant increase in terrorist activities by right-wing groups including neo-Nazis, skinheads, and other “visionaries” seeking to recreate some former or future ideal political state.

Keywords

Turkey Fishing Egypt Nigeria Indonesia 

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Notes

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© James M. Lutz and Brenda J. Lutz 2005

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  • James M. Lutz
  • Brenda J. Lutz

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