Abstract

President Woodrow Wilson had traveled to Paris in March and returned to the United States on June 28, 1919. No sooner had he returned to Washington than he realized the difficult task that lay ahead. There had gathered enormous opposition in the Senate against his policies. Wilson presented the peace treaty to the U.S. Senate on July 10, 1919. His address placed the controversial issues pertaining to the League Covenant, which now constituted the principal object of his foreign policy, in positive terms.1 The Senate Republicans, led by Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, opposed ratification of the treaty as introduced by Wilson. Their opposition stemmed from partisanship and the demand to reassert congressional authority in the foreign policymaking process rather than, as the literature on the American mandate over Armenia suggests, from resurgent isolationism.

Keywords

Europe Petroleum Amid Marketing Assure 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Kendrick A. Clements, The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson ( Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1992 ), p. 189;Google Scholar
  2. Lloyd E. Ambrosius, Wilsonian Statecraft: Theory and Practice of Liberal Internationalism during World War I ( Wilmington: Scholarly Resource Books, 1991 ), p. 133.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    William C. Widenor, Henry Cabot Lodge and the Search for an American Foreign Policy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), pp. 297, 316.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thomas J. Knock, To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 260; Library of Congress, Division of Manuscripts, Papers of Robert Lansing, Diary, Nov. 22, 1919; cited hereafter as Lansing Diary.Google Scholar
  5. 58.
    Gerald D. Nash, United States Oil Policy 1890–1964 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1968), pp. 40-c, 50, 52;Google Scholar
  6. Emily S. Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream: American Economic and Cultural Expansion, 1890–1945 ( New York: Hill and Wang, 1982 ), p. 128;Google Scholar
  7. John A. DeNovo, “The Movement for a More Aggressive Oil Policy Abroad,” American Historical Review 61 (1955–56): 857–58.Google Scholar
  8. 66.
    James B. Gidney, A Mandate fbr Armenia (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1967), pp. 233–37; Hovannisian, Republic of Arurcuia, vol. 4, pp. 3–24.Google Scholar

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© Simon Payaslian 2005

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  • Simon Payaslian

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