President Woodrow Wilson had traveled to Paris in March and returned to the United States on June 28, 1919. No sooner had he returned to Washington than he realized the difficult task that lay ahead. There had gathered enormous opposition in the Senate against his policies. Wilson presented the peace treaty to the U.S. Senate on July 10, 1919. His address placed the controversial issues pertaining to the League Covenant, which now constituted the principal object of his foreign policy, in positive terms.1 The Senate Republicans, led by Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, opposed ratification of the treaty as introduced by Wilson. Their opposition stemmed from partisanship and the demand to reassert congressional authority in the foreign policymaking process rather than, as the literature on the American mandate over Armenia suggests, from resurgent isolationism.
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