The “Final Solution” to the “Tutsi Problem”

  • Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu


The Rwandan genocide of 1994 was the indirect result of the expansion of the European-dominated international system of the late nineteenth century. That expansion occurred mostly through colonization. Rwanda is made up of three ethnic groups—the Twas (historically pigmy hunters believed to have been the area’s first inhabitants), the Hutus of Bantu origin (believed to have come from Cameroon), and the Tutsis (who reportedly came from Ethiopia in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries). The Hutus, who constitute 85 percent of Rwanda’s population, were mainly farmers, while the Tutsis, who comprised 14 percent prior to the genocide, were mainly pastoral keepers of cattle. “This was the original inequality: cattle are a more valuable asset than produce,” writes Philip Gourevitch.1


United Nations Security Council Khmer Rouge International Tribunal Strategic Interest 
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1 The “Final Solution” to the “Tutsi Problem”

  1. 1.
    Philip Gourevitch, We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families ( New York: Picador USA, 1998 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Emmanuel Gasana Jean-Bosco, Byanafashe Deo, and Alice Kareikezi, “Rwanda,” in Adebayo Adedeji, ed., Comprehending and Mastering African Conflicts ( London and New York: Zed Books, 1999 ), 141–142.Google Scholar
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    Amy Chua, World on Fire ( New York: Anchor Books, 2004 ).Google Scholar
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    See Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Central Africa ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998 ), 225–234.Google Scholar
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    Bill Berkeley, The Graves Are Not Yet Full: Race, Tribe and Power in the Heart of Africa ( New York: Basic Books, 2001 ), 258.Google Scholar
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    Alfred de Zayas, “The Right to One’s Homeland, Ethnic Cleansing and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia,” Criminal Law Forum 6, 2, 1995, 257–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Romeo Dallaire, Shake Hands With the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda ( Canada: Random House, 2003 ), 62.Google Scholar
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    See Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto, War Crimes and Realpolitik: International Justice from World War I to the 21st Century ( Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 2004 ), 179.Google Scholar
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    See Kuperman, Humanitarian Intervention, Nicholas Wheeler, Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 )Google Scholar
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    Samantha Power, “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide (London: Flamingo, 2003), xv (preface).Google Scholar
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    Linda Melvern, A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide ( London: Zed Books, 2000 )Google Scholar
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    See Sharon LaFranière, “Court Convicts 3 in 1994 Genocide Across Rwanda,” New York Times, December 4, 2003.Google Scholar

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© Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu 2005

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  • Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu

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