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Two Passages to Modernity

  • Bruce Gilley

Abstract

Gandhi wrote the words above in 1909, at a time when he was struggling with the question of India’s modernization and how to achieve it. (Gandhi [1909] 1956, 103) Nearly a century later, the words have a deep resonance. Despite decades of calls by outsiders for a more coercive, planned, even revolutionary approach to political and economic development, India has remained steady indeed. Gandhi’s hope lay in the idea that repression and violence were not necessary steps on the road to modernity, as Moore and others claimed (Moore [1966] 1993, 410). Today, this hope is being realized as India’s constitutional democracy deepens and its poverty rates fall (from 37 percent in 1987 to somewhere between 15 percent and 28 percent by 2002) (Deaton and Kozel 2005).

Keywords

Procedural Justice Human Development Index Economic Reform Chinese Communist Party United Nations Development Programme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Edward Friedman and Bruce Gilley 2005

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  • Bruce Gilley

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