Two Passages to Modernity

  • Bruce Gilley


Gandhi wrote the words above in 1909, at a time when he was struggling with the question of India’s modernization and how to achieve it. (Gandhi [1909] 1956, 103) Nearly a century later, the words have a deep resonance. Despite decades of calls by outsiders for a more coercive, planned, even revolutionary approach to political and economic development, India has remained steady indeed. Gandhi’s hope lay in the idea that repression and violence were not necessary steps on the road to modernity, as Moore and others claimed (Moore [1966] 1993, 410). Today, this hope is being realized as India’s constitutional democracy deepens and its poverty rates fall (from 37 percent in 1987 to somewhere between 15 percent and 28 percent by 2002) (Deaton and Kozel 2005).


Procedural Justice Human Development Index Economic Reform Chinese Communist Party United Nations Development Programme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akbar, M.J. (1985). India: The Siege Within. Harmondsworth: Pengu in Books.Google Scholar
  2. Amnesty International (2004). Executed “According to Law”?: The Death Penalty in China.Google Scholar
  3. Bajpai, Nirupam (2002). A Decade of Economic Reforms in India: The Unfinished Agenda. Cambridge, MA: Center for International Development, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  4. Bendix, Reinhard (1978). Kings or People: Power and the Mandate to Rule. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bennhold, Katrin (2005). “U.S. Aide Sees ‘Internal Strains’ Tugging at China.” International Herald Tribune, March 3, 2005.Google Scholar
  6. Bradsher, Keith (2002). “India Slips Far Behind China, Once Its Close Economic Rival.” New York Times, November 29, New York, p. 1.Google Scholar
  7. Central Intelligence Agency (2005). Mapping the Global Future.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, Feng (1997). “The Dilemma of Eudaemonic Legitimacy in Post-Mao China.” Polity 29 (3): 421–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, Jie (1997a). “Assessing Political Support in China.” Journal of Contemporary China 6 (16): 551–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, Jie (1997b). “The Level and Sources of Popular Support for China’s Current Political Regime.” Communist and Post-Communist Societies 30 (1): 45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chibber, Vivek (2003). Locked in Place: State-Building and Late Industrialization in India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Crafts, Nicholas (1997). “The Human Development Index and Changes in Standards of Living: Some Historical Comparisons.” European Review of Economic History 1 (3): 299–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Das, Gucharan (2002a). The Elephant Paradigm: India Wrestles: With Change. New Delhi: Pengu in Books.Google Scholar
  14. Das, Gucharan (2002b). India Unbound: The Social and Economic Revolution from Independence to the Global Information Age. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  15. Deaton, Angus and Valerie Kozel (2005). Data and Dogma: The Great Indian Poverty Debate, World Bank, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  16. Desai, Meghnad (2003). India and China: An Essay in Comparative Political Economy. IMF Conference on India and China, New Delhi, International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  17. Diamond, Larry (2002). “Thinking About Hybrid Regimes.” Journal of Democracy 13 (2): 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dickie, Mure (2003). “There’s Hope for China, Says Freed Entrepreneur.” Financial Times, London, P. 2.Google Scholar
  19. Dreze, Jean and Amartya Sen (1989). Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  20. Esty, Daniel C., Marc A. Levy, et al. (2005). 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index: Benchmarking National Environmental Stewardship. New Haven, CT: Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy.Google Scholar
  21. Fearon, James (2003). “Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country.” journal of Economic Growth 8: 195–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fish, M Steven (2002). “Islam and Authoritarianism.” World Politics 55 (1): 4–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Friedman, Edward (1998). “Development, Revolution, Democracy, and Dictatorship: China Versus India?” in T. Skocpolt (ed.), Democracy, Revolution, and History Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 102–123.Google Scholar
  24. Friedman, Edward (2002). How To Understand Public Opinion in China. Washington D.C. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: 17–21.Google Scholar
  25. Friedman, Edward, Mark Selden, et al. (2005). Revolution, Resistance and Reform in Village China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Gallagher, Mary (2002). “ ‘Reform and Openness’: Why China’s Economic Reforms Have Delayed Democracy.” World Politics 54: 338–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gandhi, Mahatma ([1909] 1956 ). “Indian Home Rule,” in H. Jack (ed.), The Gandhi Reader. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, pp. 104–121.Google Scholar
  28. Geertz, Clifford (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  29. Gilley, Bruce (2004a). China’s Democratic Future: How It Will Happen and Where It Will Lead. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Gilley, Bruce (2004b). “The ‘End of Politics’ in Beijing.” China journal 51: 115–135.Google Scholar
  31. Gilley, Bruce (2006). “The Meaning and Measure of State Legitimacy: Results for 72 Countries.” European Journal of Political Research.Google Scholar
  32. Goldstein, Steven (1995). “The Political Foundations of Incremental Reform.” China Quarterly 144: 1105–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gwartney, James and Robert Lawson (2004). Economic Freedom of the World: 2004 Annual Report. Vancouver, B.C.: The Fraser Institute.Google Scholar
  34. Harrison, Selig (1960). The Most Dangerous Decades. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  35. He, Jiadong (2004). Xia shiji bu neng hushi yindu (We Cannot Overlook India in the Next Century). Beijing Social and Economic Research Institute.Google Scholar
  36. Hirschmann, Albert (1970). “The Search for Paradigms as a Hindrance to Understanding.” World Politics 22 (3): 329–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Howe, Irving (1976). “Preface”, in I. Howe (ed.), Essential Works of Socialism. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. i—ii.Google Scholar
  38. Human Rights in China (2002). Institutionalized Exclusion: The Tenuous Legal Status of Internal Migrants in China’s Major Cities, Human Rights in China.Google Scholar
  39. Human Rights Watch/Asia and Human Rights in China (1997). Whose Security? “State Security” in China’s New Criminal Code.Google Scholar
  40. Huntington, Samuel (1968). Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Inglehart, Ronald (1997). Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, Bryan (1989). “India Badly Beaten in Race With China.” The Globe and Mail, Toronto, p. 8.Google Scholar
  43. Kaufman, Michael (1981). “China Surpasses India”. New York Times, New York, p. 5.Google Scholar
  44. Kaufmann, Daniel, Aart Kraay, et al. (2005). Governance Matters IL: Governance Indicators for 1996–2004, World Bank.Google Scholar
  45. Kennedy, John E (1959). The Basis of U.S. Interest in India: Its New Dimensions. Conference on India and the United States, Committee for International Economic Growth, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  46. Kohli, Atul (1990). Democracy and Discontent: India’s Growing Crisis of Governability. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kohli, Atul (ed.) (2001). “Introduction,” The Success of India’s Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  48. Kohli, Atul (2004). State-Directed Development: Political Power and Industrialization in the Global Periphery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kohli, Atul and Rani Mullen (2003). “Democracy, Growth, and Poverty in India,” in A. Kohli, C.-i. Moon, and G. Sorensen (eds.), States Markets, and just Growth: Development in the Twenty-First Century. New York: United Nations University Press, pp. 193–226.Google Scholar
  50. Krishna, S.M. (2004). “21st Century Belongs to India, China, Says Krishna.” The Hindu, p. 5.Google Scholar
  51. Kristof, Nicholas D. and Sheryl WuDunn (1994). China Wakes: The Struggle for the Soul of a Rising Power. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  52. Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn (2000). Thunder from the East: Portrait of a Rising Asia. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  53. Kung, James Kai-sing and Justin Yifu Lin (2003). “The Causes of China’s Great Leap Famine, 1959–1961.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 52 (1): 51–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuran, Timur (1992). “Now Out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution,” in N. Bermeo (ed.), Liberalization and Democratization: Change in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 7–48.Google Scholar
  55. Kuznets, Simon (1966). Modern Economic Growth. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Lin, Limin (2004). “China-India Relations Enter the Fast Lane of Development.” China Strategy 3: 31–33.Google Scholar
  57. Long, Simon (2005). “The Tiger in Front: A Survey of India and China.” The Economist.Google Scholar
  58. Maddison, Angus (1998). Chinese Economic Performance in the Long Run, OECD Development Center.Google Scholar
  59. Mao, Yushi and Hongling Zhou (2000). Guanyu Zhengzhi Gaigede Duihua (A Discussion About Political Reform). 2000 Zhongguo Zhengzhi Nianbao (China Political Report, 2000). Lanzhou, China: Lanzhou University Press, pp. 191–199.Google Scholar
  60. Moore, Barrington (1954). Terror and Progress in the USSR. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moore, Barrington (1970). Reflections on the Causes of Human Misery and Upon Certain Proposals to Eliminate Them. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  62. Moore, Barrington ([1966] 1993 ). Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  63. Moore, Barrington, Jr. (1978). Injustice: The Social Bases of Obedience and Revolt. White Plains, NY: M.E. Sharpe.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Myrdal, Gunnar (1968). Asian Drama: An Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  65. Naipaul, V. S. (1990). India: A Million Mutinies Now. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  66. Naughton, Barry (1995). Growing Out of the Plan: Chinese Economic Reform 1978–1993. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ogden, Suzanne (2002). Inklings of Democracy in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center.Google Scholar
  68. Park, Jong H. (2003). “The Two Giants of Asia: Trade and Development in China and India.” Journal of Development Studies 18 (1): 64–81.Google Scholar
  69. Patnaik, Utsa (2003). On Measuring “Famine” Deaths: Different Criteria for Socialism and Capitalism? China Study Group, March 10, 2005.Google Scholar
  70. Qin, Hui (2005). “China’s Economic Development Performance under the Pre-Reform System.” The Chinese Economy, 3 parts, 38 (4, 5, and 6).Google Scholar
  71. Rohwer, Jim (1995). Asia Rising. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  72. Rosen, George (1992). Contrasting Styles of Industrial Reform: China and India in the 1980s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  73. Rummel, R. J. (1991). China’s Bloody Century. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  74. Salomon Smith Barney (2001). China and India: Different Tunes.Google Scholar
  75. Schurmann, Franz (1968). Ideology and Organization in Communist China. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  76. Scott, James (1985). Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Segal, Ronald (1965). The Crisis of India. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
  78. Sen, Amartya (2006). The Argumentative Indian. London: Pengu in Books.Google Scholar
  79. Shambaugh, David (1999). “After 50 Years of Communism.” The Independent (October 1): 4.Google Scholar
  80. Siegle, Joseph, Michael Weinstein, et al. (2005). The Democracy Advantage. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Skocpol, Theda (1979). States and Social Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smart, J. C. C. and Bernard Williams (1987). Utilitarianism—For and Against. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Smil, Vaclav (1999). “China’s Great Famine: 40 Years Later.” British Medical Journal 319 (7225): 1619–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stavrianos, L.S. (1981). Global Rift: The Third World Comes of Age. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  85. Sweezy, Paul (1976). “Socialism in Poor Countries.” Monthly Review 20 (5): 1–15.Google Scholar
  86. Tyler, Tom (1990). Why People Obey the Law. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Tyler, Tom (1994). “Governing amid Diversity: The Effect of Fair Decisionmaking Procedures on the Legitimacy of Government.” Law & Society Review 28 (4): 809–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. United Nations Development Programme (2000). Annual Report: Human Rights and Development.Google Scholar
  89. United Nations Development Programme (2002). Annual Report: Democracy and Development.Google Scholar
  90. Vaghul, Narayanan (1999). India’s Economic Reforms: Positive Developments, Underlying Concerns and the Big Picture. Center for the Advanced Study of India, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  91. Varshney, Ashutosh (2002). Ethnic Conflict and Civil Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Walzer, Michael (1977). Just and Unjust Wars. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  93. Wang, Shaoguang (2000). “The Social and Political Implications of China’s WTO Membership.” Journal of Contemporary China 9 (25): 373–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang, Zhengxu (2005). “Political Trust in China: Forms and Causes,” in L. White (ed.), Political Legitimacy in East and Southeast Asia. Singapore: World Scientific.Google Scholar
  95. White, Gordon (1994). “Democratization and Economic Reform in China.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 31: 73–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wong, Linda (2004). “Market Reforms, Globalization and Social Justice in China.” Journal of Contemporary China 13 (38): 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. World Bank (1997). China 2020. Washington, D.C.: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yasheng, Huang (2003). Selling China: Foreign Direct Investment During the Reform Era. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Zhong, Yang (1996). “Legitimacy Crisis and Legitimation in China.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 26 (2): 201–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhou, Kate Xiao (1996). How the Farmers Changed China: Power of the People. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Edward Friedman and Bruce Gilley 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce Gilley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations