A Closer Look at Media Openness: From Institutional Democracy to Media Openness?

  • Seung-Whan Choi
  • Patrick James
Part of the Advances in Foreign Policy Analysis book series (AFPA)


Among the four factors introduced in this book, media openness has emerged as preeminent at the dyadic level in its association with avoiding MIDs. The effects of media openness supersede those from the other components of the foreign policy decision-making model as well as Oneal and Russett’s (1999c) three neo-Kantian peace variables (i.e., democraticness, economic interdependence, and joint membership in international organizations). These persistent and important findings encourage more in-depth assessment of media as a component of democracy in direct comparison with Polity-based democracy. In particular, the institutional elements from the quasistandard Polity Index might be re-examined when compared with media openness with regard to explanation of MIDs and related phenomena. Thus, the present chapter presents (a) more refined theoretical linkages between media and conflict and (b) additional empirical tests for the longer period from 1950 to 1992, which corresponds approximately to the Cold War era.1


Foreign Policy Civil Liberty Liberal Democracy Media Openness International Conflict 
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Copyright information

© Seung-Whan Choi and Patrick James 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seung-Whan Choi
    • 1
  • Patrick James
    • 2
  1. 1.University of IllinoisChicagoUSA
  2. 2.University of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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