A Key Issue of Measurement: Military Expenditure and Civil-Military Relations

  • Seung-Whan Choi
  • Patrick James
Part of the Advances in Foreign Policy Analysis book series (AFPA)


This chapter explores a key measurement issue with respect to civil-military relations. The issue is singled out for attention because of its potential for controversy: The degree of civilian versus military control is perhaps the least effectively measured entity among the concepts introduced by the foreign policy decision-making model. In the previous chapters, we have measured the degree of civilian versus military influence through change in military expenditure. However, this might be regarded instead as an indicator of the severity of threats to national security as perceived by national leaders—in other words, more serious dangers could produce higher military expenditures. This chapter looks into that salient possibility by treating military expenditure and other variables, such as military manpower system, as components of an endogenized indicator of civil-military relations. The results obtained here will be important to the overall project, in which civil versus military influence is put forward as a key causal factor in relation to the propensity of a state to become involved in external disputes.


National Security Annual Growth Rate Military Expenditure Military Leader Economic Interdependence 
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Copyright information

© Seung-Whan Choi and Patrick James 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seung-Whan Choi
    • 1
  • Patrick James
    • 2
  1. 1.University of IllinoisChicagoUSA
  2. 2.University of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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