Since the massive volume of democratic peace studies appeared in full force during the 1990s, several rounds of criticism have been directed toward their theoretical arguments and empirical findings. The present study seeks to contribute to that dialogue with a special emphasis on factors that go beyond the synthesis achieved in Russett and Oneal’s (2001) recent and prominent volume, Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations.1 This work, which combines dyadic and systemic factors to create an overall picture of international conflict and peace, is a major step toward a theory that includes a full range of macro (i.e., systemic) and micro (i.e., unit) linkages, that is, macro-macro, macro-micro, micro-macro, and micro-micro linkages (Bunge 1996; James 2002). For example, consider these extensions: Bilateral rivalries might be dampened by increasing economic interdependence and organizational infrastructure at the regional level—a macro-micro connection. A micro-macro-oriented link would be from increasingly common pairs of democracies upward to more peaceful norms regarding negotiation and bargaining at the regional level (Mitchell 2002).
KeywordsForeign Policy Political Communication International Conflict Regime Type Military Expenditure
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