Quandaries, Prospects, and Challenges of Nomadic Educational Policy for Girls in Sub-Saharan-Africa

  • Lantana Usman


There are 876 million nonliterate people around the world; two-thirds of them are women, while two-thirds of school-age children in the developing world without access to education are girls (World’s Women, 2000). Colonial legacies combine with the economic struggles of many African states to perpetuate the tendency to favor the development of education in urban areas at the expense of the rural. This practice further disadvantages the educational opportunities of rural girls due to the traditional cost-benefit attitudes that favor boys (FAWE, 2004, 2000; Kane, 1997; Rose and Tembon, 1998).


Female Teacher African State Early Marriage Female Education Biogas Digester 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adamu, H.A. (1973) The North and Nigerian unity: Some reflections on the political, social and educational problems of Northern Nigeria. Zaria: Gaskiya Corporation Printers.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, A.R. (1972). The effects of slump on education in the Northern provinces of Nigeria (1929–1939). Savannah, 1 (1), 197–207.Google Scholar
  3. Assie-Lumumba, N. (1998). Women in West Africa. In Stromquist, P.N. (Ed.), Women in third world (pp. 533–543). New York & London: Garland Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Awogbade, M.O. (1983). Fulani pastoralism: Jos Case study. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barman, J. (2003). Separate and unequal: Indian and white girls at All Hallows School, 1884–1920. In J. Barman and M. Gleason (Eds.), Children, teachers & schools (pp. 283–302). Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprise Ltd.Google Scholar
  6. Barakett, J. and Cleghorn, A. (2000). Sociology of education: An introductory view from Canada. Scarborough, ON: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Bloch, M., Beoku-Betts, A. J. and Tabachnick, B.R. (1998). Women and education in sub-Saharan Africa. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  8. Bruijin de. M. (1997). The hearthold in pastoral Fulbe society, central Mali: Social relations, milk and drought. Journal of the International African Institute, 67 (4), 625–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Creswell, W.J. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Csapo, M. (1981). Religious, social and economic factors hindering the education of girls in Northern Nigeria. Comparative Education Review, 17 (3), 311–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de St. Croix, F.W. (1972). The Fulani in Northern Nigeria. Farnborough: Gregg International Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Diallo, D. (1985). Definition of Fulbe African culture. In UNESCO (Ed.). Distinctive characteristics and common features of African cultural areas south of the Sahara. Colchester, UK: Spottiswood Ballantyne Ltd.Google Scholar
  13. Dupire, M. (1962). The place of markets in the economy of the Bororo (Fulbe) economy. In P. Bohannan and G. Evaston (Eds.), Markets in Africa (pp. 22–48). Evanston: Northwestern University Press. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Dupire, M. (1971). The position of women in a pastoral society (The Fulani WoDaaBe nomads of the Niger). In D. Paulme (Ed.), Women of tropical Africa (pp. 42–53). Evanston: Northwestern University Press. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dye, R.T. (1976). Policy analysis: What governments do, why they do it, and what difference it makes. Alabama: University of Alabama press.Google Scholar
  16. Education For All (2000). Assessment: Country Reports; Nigeria. UNESCO. Scholar
  17. Education For All (2003/4). Global Monitoring Report: Nigeria. UNESCO. Scholar
  18. Ekwensi, C. (1962). Burning grass: A story of the Fulani of Northern Nigeria. New York: Humanities press.Google Scholar
  19. El-Hafiz, S. (2000). Literacy to determine emancipation of Nigerian women. Nigerian Telex (5) 1–2.Google Scholar
  20. Eraut, M.R. (1991). Defining objectives. In A. Lewy (Ed.), International encyclopedia of curriculum. Oxford: Pergammon Press.Google Scholar
  21. EUROPA (1998). Africa South of the Sahara (27th. ed). England: EUROPA Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  22. Ezeomah, C. (1978). Educating the nomads: The attitude of the cattle Fulani towards education. Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration; Studies in Educational Administration. (12), September.Google Scholar
  23. Ezeomah, C. (1981). Strategies for training nomadic teachers. Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration; Studies in Educational Administration (23), June.Google Scholar
  24. Ezeomah, C. (1983). The education of nomadic people. The Fulani of Northern Nigeria. Hull, Britain: Oriel Press.Google Scholar
  25. Ezeomah, C. (1989). Nomadic education: Approaches and location of nomadic education zones. Jos: University of Jos.Google Scholar
  26. Ezeomah, C. (1991). Distance education for the nomads. Journal of Nomadic Education, 1 (1), 3–11.Google Scholar
  27. Ezeomah, C. (1998). Redemptive egalitarianism as a strategy for equalizing educational opportunities: The case of nomads of Nigeria. Journal of Nomadic Studies, 1 (1), 111–122.Google Scholar
  28. Ezeomah, C. (2002). Social, economic and political activities of nomads and educational policy implementation. A tentative research report presented at the international conference, Abuja, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  29. Fafunwa, A.B. (1974). History of education in Nigeria. London, UK: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  30. Federal Department of Livestock and Pest Control Services (1992). National Livestock Census and Synthesis of Data. FDL & PCS. (pp. 424–433). Abuja, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  31. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1979). The Nigerian constitution. Lagos: FGN Printers.Google Scholar
  32. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1981). National Policy on education. Lagos: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  33. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1987). Blue Print on female education. Lagos: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  34. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1989). National Commission for Nomadic Education: Decree41. Lagos: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  35. Federal Republic of Nigeria (1989). National Commission for Nomadic Education. Decree 41 of December 12 Lagos: FGN Printers.Google Scholar
  36. Forum of African Women Educationists (1998). Gender Analysis for Education Policy: A workshop manual. Nairobi, Kenya: FAWE.Google Scholar
  37. Forum of African Women Educationists (2000). Girl’s education in Africa: The FAWE response to EFA highlights for the year 2000. Kenya, Nairobi: FAWE.Google Scholar
  38. Forum of African Women Educationists (2001). Girl’s education and poverty eradication. FAWE Report. Paper presented at third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries. 10–20 May. Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  39. Forum of African Women Educationists (2004). Girls education: What, Who and How. Scholar
  40. Foster, J. (1960). Women teacher training in Northern Nigeria. Oversea Education, January 31, 147–155.Google Scholar
  41. Frohock, M.F. (1979). Public policy: Scope and logic. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  42. Gachukia, E. (2004). The education of girls and women in Africa. Issues and concern. retrieved May 23.Google Scholar
  43. Haddad, L. and Hoddinott, J. (1994). Women’s income and boy-girl anthrometric status in the Cote d’Ivoire. World Development, 22 (4), 543–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hammarberg, T. (2000). A school for children with rights. Development: Journal of the Society for International Development, 43 (1), 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hassan, R.H. (1991). A small library for rural women. Kaduna: Jel Publications.Google Scholar
  46. Hufner, K. (1983). Educational policy planning and educational research. In OCDE (Ed.), Educational planning: A reappraisal (pp. 52–73). Paris: OECD publication office.Google Scholar
  47. Ismail, I. (2002). The Fulani milk maid and problems of dairying in Nigeria. www.gamji.comGoogle Scholar
  48. Junaid, M. (1987) Education and cultural integrity: An ethnographic study of formal education and pastoralists families in Sokoto State, Nigeria. An unpublished Ph.D. thesis, York University, Britain.Google Scholar
  49. Kane, E. (1997). Research handbook for girls education in Africa. Economic Development Institute of World Bank: Washington, D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar
  50. Khazanov, M.A. (1994). Nomads and the outside world. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  51. Mbahu, A. (1999). The traditional arts and crafts of Fulani people. Journal of Nomadic Studies, 2, 41–49.Google Scholar
  52. McRae, D. (1980). Policy analysis methods and government functions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishers.Google Scholar
  53. McLaren, P.S.J. (1995). “New Canadians or Slaves of Satan”? The law and the education of Doukhobor children, 1911–1935. In J. Barman, N. Sutherland and J.D. Wilson (Eds.), Children, teachers & schools (pp. 147–160). Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprise Ltd.Google Scholar
  54. Moulton, J. (2002). Education reforms in sub-Saharan Africa: Paradigm lost. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  55. Mushi, A.K.P. (2002). Moving beyond the classroom: Expanding learning opportunities for marginalized populations in Tanzania and Ethiopia. Overall Report. Nairobi, Kenya: FAWE.Google Scholar
  56. Nagel, S.S. and Neef, M. (1979). Policy analysis in social research. London, UK: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  57. National Commission for Nomadic Education (1995). Monitoring report. Kaduna: NCNE.Google Scholar
  58. Nicholaisen, J. and Nicholaisen, I. (1997). The pastoral Tuareg. Vols 1 & 2. The Carlsberg Foundation Nomad Research Project London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.Google Scholar
  59. Nwabueze, B.O. (1995). Crises and problems of education in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Publishers.Google Scholar
  60. Nwagu, N.A. (1976). Problems in the formulation of educational policies in Nigeria. Nigeria Educational Forum, 2 (1), 39–43.Google Scholar
  61. Okaiyeto, P.O. (1998). Costs and returns implications of introducing Bio-gas Digester and tent-type solar dryer to the pastoral Fulani in Nigeria. Journal of Nomadic Studies, 1 (1), 77–87.Google Scholar
  62. Okeke, A.N. (1977). Education and political stability in Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Education, 1 (2), 24–31.Google Scholar
  63. Ogunsola, L.A. (1999). The role of libraries in the effective implementation of nomadic education in Nigeria. Journal of Nomadic Studies, 2, 32–39.Google Scholar
  64. Ozzigi, A. and Ocho, L. (1981). Education in Northern Nigeria. Boston & Sydney: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  65. Psacharopoulos, G. (1985). Education for development and analysis of investment choices. New York: Oxford University Press/World Bank.Google Scholar
  66. Psacharopoulos, G. (1990). Why educational policies can fail: An overview of selected African experiences. World Bank discussion papers Africa technical department. The World Bank: Washington, D.C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Reisman, P. (1984). The Fulani in development context: The relevance of cultural traditions for coping with change and crisis. In E. Scott (Ed.), Life before the drought (pp. 171–183.) London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  68. Rose, P. and Tembon, M. (1998). Gender and primary schooling in Africa: Gender and education: The British Council; Social Development and gender. The Network Newsletter Schooling in Africa, 13, 1–2.Google Scholar
  69. Stenning, D.J. (1957). Transhumance migratory drift, migration: Patterns of pastoral Fulani nomadism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 87, 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stenning, D.J. (1959). Savannah nomads: A study of the Wodaabe pastoral Fulani of western Bornu province, northern region Nigeria. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Soumelis, C.G. (1977). Project evaluation, methodology and techniques. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  72. Sutton, M. (1998). Girls’ educational access and attainment. In N.P. Stromquist (Ed.), Women in third world. New York and London: Garland Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  73. Tahir, G. (1998). Nomadic Education in Nigeria: Issues, problems and prospects. Journal of Nomadic Studies, 1 (1), 10–26.Google Scholar
  74. Tahir, G. (2000). Teacher demand and supply for nomadic education: A challenge to the teacher education institutions for the 21st century. Paper presented at the Inter-University Collaborative Teacher Education Conference on “Teacher Education in Nigeria: Current status, 21st Century challenges and strategies for improvement” University of Jos, Nigeria; December, 6–9.Google Scholar
  75. Tibenderana, P.K. (1983). The Emirs and spread of western education in Northern Nigeria, 1910–1946. Journal of African History, 24, 517–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Trevor, J. (1975). Western education and Muslim Fulani/Hausa women in Sokoto Northern Nigeria. In G. Brown, and M. Hiskett (Eds.), Conflict and harmony in education in tropical Africa. (pp. 247–270). London: AllenGoogle Scholar
  77. Uchendu, K.P. (1995). Education and the changing economic role of Nigerian women. Fourth Dimension Publishers.Google Scholar
  78. Ummar, A. and Tahir, G. (1998). Open broadcasting for nomadic pastoralists. In G. Tahir and N. Muhammed (Eds.), Readings on distance education for the pastoral nomads of Nigeria (pp. 3–11). Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  79. Ummar, A. (1987). The planning of radio for adult education among the pastoral Fulani: A reconstructionist approach. An unpublished Ph.D. thesis, submitted to the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, Britain.Google Scholar
  80. UNESCO (1993). Girls’ education statistics. A Global context. March 1: Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  81. UNESCO/UNICEF (1993). The education of girls: The Ouagadougou declaration and framework of action. Paris & New York. UNESCO/UNICEF.Google Scholar
  82. UNDP (1989). Education and training in the 1990s: Developing countries needs and strategies.Google Scholar
  83. UNDP Policy Discussion Paper: New York: Education Development Centre.Google Scholar
  84. Usman, L.M. (2001a). “No one will listen to us”: Rural Fulbe women learning by radio in Nigeria. In L. Burge and M. Haughey (Eds.), Exploring learning technologies: Perspectives from international practice (pp. 91–95). London: Routledge/Falmer.Google Scholar
  85. Usman, M.L. (2001b). Analysis of Nigeria’s Nomadic Educational Policy on the Socio-Economic Development of Fulbe Women and Girls. An unpublished Ph.D. thesis, submitted to the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar
  86. Uwais, M. (2002). Children’s Bill not Anti-Islamic. This Day Newspaper. December 24. Lagos. Scholar
  87. VerEecke, C. (1991). Pulaaku: An empowering symbol among the pastoral Fulbe people of Nigeria. In G. Tahir (Ed.), Education and pastoralism in Nigeria. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press.Google Scholar
  88. VerEecke, C. (1995). Muslim women traders of Northern Nigeria: Perspectives from the city of Yola. In B. House-Midamba and F.K. Ekechi (Eds.), African market women and economic power (pp. 59–81). Greenwood Press: Connecticut & London.Google Scholar
  89. World’s Women (2000). Scholar
  90. World Development Indicators (1998). World Bank. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  91. World Bank (1988). Education in sub-Sahara Africa: Strategies for adjustment, revitalization and expansion. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar
  92. Zewande, G. (2004). The situation of girls’ education in Anglophone Africa. retrieved May 23.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ali A. Abdi and Ailie Cleghorn 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lantana Usman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations