Bad Girls Confined: Okuni, Geisha, and the Negotiation of Female Performance Space

  • Kelly Foreman


The modern Japanese geisha is a versatile performing artist who derives her identity within a context that the public casts in a bad light. The widespread and deep misunderstandings about geisha result from the lack of direct contact most people have had with geisha and the subsequent reliance upon fictional and word-of-mouth representations. Geisha reside within the world of Japanese traditional performance arts, and geisha are rarely understood within this context because this world is largely unknown to outsiders. However, this context is essential if one is to understand their reasons for giving evening performances, the high costs of attending these parties, and the motivations for these women choosing the geisha career in the first place.


Audience Member Female Performance White Tooth Ballroom Dance Public Stage 
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© Laura Miller and Jan Bardsley 2005

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  • Kelly Foreman

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