A New Order, 1921–1953

  • Patrick Clawson
  • Michael Rubin
Part of the The Middle East in Focus book series (MEF)


The optimism that the Constitutional Revolution had brought to many Iranians was dashed by the harsh reality of civil war and then World War I. By 1920, Iran lay humiliated, barely could resist the centrifugal forces that threatened to pull it apart along ethnic or linguistic lines, while both British-and Soviet-supported forces had effectively carved out spheres of influence. The Iranian government barely functioned, being reduced to penury by an enormous debt and functioning without any effective leadership. It was hard for proud Iranians to see their country—which had been a great empire when Europeans lived in caves or mud hovels—reduced so low. When The National Geographic Magazine devoted its April 1921 issue to Iran, the words and photos showed graphically a dirt-poor country mired in the worst of the past.


Prime Minister Islamic Republic Iranian Society Iranian Government National Front 
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© Patrick Clawson and Michael Rubin 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Clawson
  • Michael Rubin

There are no affiliations available

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